1. Learning supports are the resources, strategies, and practices that provide physical, social, emotional, and intellectual supports intended to address barriers to learning and teaching in ways that enable all pupils to have an equal opportunity for success at school.
2. In order to address barriers to learning and teaching, experts recommend that school improvement planners do each of the following EXCEPT:
A. Develop both in-classroom and school-wide approaches including interventions to support transitions, increase home and community connections, enhance teacher's ability to respond to common learning and behavior problems, and respond to and prevent crises
B. Revamp district, school, and school-community infrastructures to weave resources together to enhance and evolve the learning supports system
C. Reframe current student support programs and services and redeploy the resources to develop a circumscribed, specific, and multifaceted, and congruent component to enable learning
D. Revamp district, school, and school-community infrastructures to weave resources together to enhance and evolve the learning supports system
3. The need to engage and re-engage students in classroom instruction must be a central focus, and this requires increased emphasis on rewards and other forms of extrinsic motivation.
4. In order to maximize use of available resources and achieve economies of scale, new forms of connection can be made with other schools, which is known as:
A. Family of schools infrastructure
B. Feeder pattern infrastructure
C. School-community infrastructure
D. Off-site infrastructure
5. A three-component framework to enable all students to learn and develop calls for fully integrating the instructional and management components with the "enabling" component, which elevates efforts to address barriers to a high policy level and fully integrates the work as a fundamental and essential facet of school improvement.
6. After addressing barriers and re-engaging students, desired outcomes for all students should include academic achievement, successful transition to post-secondary life, and:
A. Having the skills to question, solve problems, and make wise decisions
B. Being committed to life-long learning
C. Social-emotional well-being
D. Making healthy and productive life choices
7. For schools, a comprehensive framework for a system of learning supports includes systems to promote healthy development and prevent problems, systems to intervene as early after the onset of a problem as is feasible, and:
A. Systems of care
B. Systems of action
C. Systems of responsibility
D. Systems of service
8. The continuum includes a system for promoting healthy development and has the intention of incorporating a holistic and developmental emphasis that envelops individuals, families, and the contexts in which they live, work, and play.
9. Formulating specific start-up and phase-in actions occurs in the first phase of establishing a comprehensive, multifaceted, and cohesive component for addressing barriers to learning.
10. When it comes to planning for developing a comprehensive system to address barriers to learning and teaching, the steering group's main functions include drafting a document describing what is to be implemented and formulating a strategic plan for getting from here to there.
11. Which of the following is NOT one of the intents of the proposed design to address barriers?
A. Deploy, redeploy, and weave together existing resources
B. Ensure that the component is developed in ways that complement and is fully integrated into efforts to improve instruction and the management of resources
C. Make certain that the work will be focused on improving academic achievement and maintaining standards
D. Increase emphasis on preventing problems and enhancing youngsters' strengths
12. An Action Planning Team develops action plans accounting for both direct implementation and systemic change considerations and clarifies feedback and guidance for improving sections of the plan that are under development.
13. Organizational research in schools, corporations, and community agencies stresses the value of which the following factors for creating a climate for institutional change:
A. Incentives for change, such as intrinsically valued outcomes, expectations for success, recognition, and rewards
B. A willingness to establish mechanisms and processes that facilitate change efforts, such as a governance mechanism that adopts ways to improve organizational health
C. Institutionalizing support mechanisms to maintain and evolve changes and to generate periodic renewal
D. All of the above
14. In planning to phase-in changes, it is useful to think in terms of four overlapping phases which include creating readiness, initial implementation, _______________, and ongoing evolution and creative renewal.
B. Mobilizing interest
C. Clarifying feasibility
D. Negotiating agreements
15. Classroom-based approaches to address barriers to learning include redesigning classroom approaches to enhance teacher capability to prevent and handle problems and reduce need for out of class referrals and reducing negative interactions and over-reliance on social control.
16. Enhancing access to direct interventions for health, mental health, and economic assistance occurs in the "support for transitions" phase of addressing barriers.
17. Although a learning support resource team might begin with only two people, it is helpful to expand the team to include informed stakeholders such as a school administrator, a school psychologist, counselor, school nurse, student, and others.
18. Which of the following is needed in order to end marginalization of efforts to address behavior, learning, and emotional problems?
A. Someone in the school who is involved with student supports, such as a pupil services professional
B. Administrative leadership
C. A "brainstorming" leader
D. A representatives of community agencies involved regularly with the school
19. Major areas of concern related to barriers to student learning include countering internal stressors, addressing common cultural and environmental problems, accommodating students early after the onset of problems.
20. In order to ensure that interventions are effective, differences among students/families are appropriately accounted for, program/services are available, accessible, and attractive, and legal and ethical issues are appropriately considered.
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