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Autism Spectrum Disorders

1. Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement about the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD)?

A. These disorders can often be reliably detected by the age of 4 years, and in some cases as early as 24 months

B. Some studies suggest that children eventually may be accurately identified by the age of 1 year or even younger

C. The appearance of any of the warning signs of ASD is reason to have a child evaluated by a professional specializing in these disorders

D. Parents are usually the first to notice unusual behaviors in their child, including being unresponsive to people or focusing intently on one item for long periods of time

2. Research has shown that parents are usually correct about noticing developmental problems with their children, although they may not realize the specific nature or degree of the problem.

A. True

B. False

Rare Autism Spectrum Disorders

3. Which of the following most accurately describes characteristics of Rett syndrome?

A. After a period of normal development, sometime between 12 and 24 months, autism-like symptoms begin to appear, and the little girl's mental and social development regresses

B. Scientists sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development have discovered that a mutation in the sequence of a single gene can cause Rett syndrome, and this discovery may help doctors slow or stop the progress of the syndrome

C. The diagnosis requires extensive and pronounced losses involving motor, language, and social skills, and is also often times accompanied by loss of bowel and bladder control, seizures, and a very low IQ

D. All of the above

What Are the Autism Spectrum Disorders?

4. Autism Spectrum Disorder is defined by a certain set of behaviors that can range from the very mild to the severe, including which behavior that was identified on the Public Health Training Network Webcast, Autism Among Us?

A. Does not babble, point, or make meaningful gestures by 18 months of age

B. Does not speak one word by 24 months

C. Is attached to one particular toy or object

D. Does not combine two words by 30 months

Social Symptoms

5. People with ASD often have difficulty seeing things from another person's perspective and are often unable to predict or understand the actions of others.

A. True

B. False

Communication Difficulties

6. Each of the following is an accurate statement about communication and language difficulties that those with ASD experience EXCEPT:

A. Those with ASD who do speak often use language in unusual ways and seem unable to combine words into meaningful sentences, sometimes speaking only single words, or repeating the same phrase over and over

B. Some children who are only mildly affected may exhibit slight delays in language, or even seem to have precocious language and unusually large vocabularies, but have great difficulty in sustaining a conversation

C. While it can be hard to understand what ASD children are saying, their body language is also difficult to understand since facial expressions, movements, and gestures rarely match what they are saying

D. Even as people with ASD grow up, they do not usually become aware of their difficulties in understanding others and in being understood, so they often don't make an effort to improve these skills

The Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders

7. Evidence over the last 15 years indicates that intensive early intervention in optimal educational settings for at least one year during the preschool years results in improved outcomes in most young children with ASD.

A. True

B. False

Treatment Options

8. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about the treatment of autism spectrum disorders?

A. Among the many methods available for treatment and education of people with autism, applied behavior analysis (ABA) has become widely accepted as an effective treatment, with the goal of behavioral management to reinforce desirable behaviors and reduce undesirable ones

B. An effective treatment program will build on the child's interests, offer a predictable schedule, teach tasks as a series of simple steps, actively engage the child's attention in highly structured activities, and provide regular reinforcement of behavior

C. Children older than 3 years usually have school-based individualized, special education focusing on specific deficits in learning, language, imitation, attention, motivation, compliance, and initiative of interaction

D. Medications may be used to treat behavioral problems, such as aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums, that keep the person with ASD from functioning more effectively at home or school

Living Arrangements for the Adult with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

9. Long-term institutional care may be an alternative for persons with ASD who need intensive, constant supervision, and unlike many of the institutions in the past, today's facilities view residents as individuals with human needs and offer opportunities for recreation and simple but meaningful work.

A. True

B. False

Research on the Biologic Basis of ASD

10. Studies indicate that some major brian structures and may be implicated in autism, including each of the following EXCEPT:

A. Cerebellum and limbic system

B. Basal ganglia and brain stem

C. Cerebral cortex and limbic system

D. Broca's area and central sulcus

11. A contributing cause for autism may be abnormal brain development beginning in the infant's first months, as postulated in the "maturation disorganization hypothesis".

A. True

B. False

The Children's Health Act of 2000--What It Means to Autism Research

12. As a result of the The Children's Health Act of 2000, the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC) was created to develop priorites for autism research in the fields of developmental neurobiology, genetics, psychopharmacology, and other areas.

A. True

B. False

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