TeachME Professional Development

Computer-Based Testing in Schools

Executive Summary

1. Computer-based testing (CBT) has emerged as one of the recent "innovative" approaches to assessments, as it is lauded as the answer to having cheaper and speedier test delivery for state and district-wide assessments and also seen by some as an avenue toward greater accessibility for students with disabilities.

A. True

B. False


2. Each of the following is an accurate statement about the advantages of computer-bsed testing EXCEPT:

A. It allows for efficient administration, student preference, self-selection options for students, improved writing performance, built-in accommodations

B. Experts believe that possibility that less training will likely be needed for students with disabilities to interact successfully with computers since most students have become familiar with computer use at school and at home

C. CBT also allows new ways of assessing students that move beyond the traditional multiple choice and constructed response items

D. Computer based testing presents an opportunity for immediate results, efficient item development, increased authenticity, and the potential to shift focus from assessment to instruction


Contextual Issues Related to Computer-Based Testing-Technological Capacity in Schools

3. One stumbling block for the push to widespread use of computer-based and online assessments is that students in rural schools or schools with high percentages of African American students may be less likely to have less access to computers.

A. True

B. False


Universal Design Applied to CBT

4. Universal design of assessment generally means an approach that involves developing assessments for the widest range of students from the beginning while maintaining the validity of results from the assessment, as well as referring to multiple means of representation, action/expression, and:

A. Delivery considerations

B. Item content

C. Technology requirements

D. Engagement


Perceived Advantages and Challenges of CBT

5. Systems implementation challenges of CBT include factors that affect how students (and sometimes teachers) perceive and interact with the test along with actors that affect how accessible a test is to a wide range of students.

A. True

B. False


Current Federal Programs that Promote CBT

6. In recent years, the Innovations for All Testing Program has been funded with federal dollars to support the development of innovative assessments based on a set of common core standards that, among many other qualities, made effective and appropriate use of technology.

A. True

B. False


Analysis of States' Computer-Based Tests-Table 1. Number of States with CBTs Found by Type of Assessment

7. For states that administered some type of assessments through CBT, the greatest number were regular assessments followed by:

A. End of Course Assessments

B. Formative/Diagnostic Evaluations

C. English Language Proficiency Tests

D. English/Math Progress Assessments


8. The availability of paper versions for CBT varied across states, but all states that used paper versions considered them to be an accommodation rather than an approach that anyone could use.

A. True

B. False


9. Computer-based testing was administered across all school levels, from elementary to high school, for the majority of states that used this method.

A. True

B. False


End of Course Exams

10. For end of course exams, most states who used CBT offered a paper version of the exam to any student who requested it.

A. True

B. False


Discussion and Considerations

11. Many states are exploring new ways to make CBT more sophisticated and interesting for students, including the development of:

A. Reasoning and problem solving

B. Multimedia drill and practice

C. Simulations and increased interactivity

D. Real life responsiveness and feedback


12. CBT design and development often are based on assumptions that drive decisions about the nature of the assessment, the tools involved, and potential students responses, and an example of a specific assumption is that is all students interact with computers in the same way, and that they are similarly engaged when a test is on a computer platform.

A. True

B. False


13. Computer-based testing occurs within the broader educational context, which includes the infrastructure of the building and classroom as well as the computer platform itself, and also occurs within a context in which teachers and students have had differential experiences with computers, which all must be considered when deciding if CBT is appropriate.

A. True

B. False


14. Each of the following is an accurate statement about accessibility features that are incorporated into CBT EXCEPT:

A. Some features may be perceived as appropriate only for students with disabilities, adding the requirement that they be turned on or off depending on who is taking the assessment

B. Decisions about what accessibility really means and who it is for, like other accessibility decisions, need to be made before or early in the design and development process

C. Students need to have used an accommodation in instruction before using it on a test

D. Decisions about which accommodations a student will use need to be needs-based and include teachers' perceptions about the usefulness of accommodations


15. Results from field testing and full test administration should be continually examined to determine whether any accessibility features or other characteristics of the assessment are not working as intended.

A. True

B. False


Appendix A-Advantages and Challenges of Computer-Based Tests (CBTs)-Economic

16. Although long term cost savings for CBTs are not known, in the short run, they often cost less than paper and pencil tests because once they have been developed, they do not need to be printed or shipped.

A. True

B. False


Systems Implementation

17. Some of the challenges with computer-based testing include finding instructional time to teach students how to navigate the test and how to use online tools and being able to train educators and technology staff.

A. True

B. False


Test Administration and Design

18. Computer-based tests that tailor the test items that a student receives based on his or her correct or incorrect responses to previous items are known as:

A. Customized outcome exams (COEs)

B. Computer adaptive tests (CATs)

C. Modified result exams (MREs)

D. Feedback-generated tests (FGTs)


Accesibility-Table A4. Accessibility Advantages and Challenges of CBTs for All Students and Students with Disabilities

19. One accessibility advantage of CBT for students with disabilities is that it may create ease for those who need a more concrete representation of things.

A. True

B. False


Students with Disabilities

20. Some CBTs may require more working memory than similar paper and pencil tests, when, for example in a reading passage, less text typically appears on the screen at any one time than on a page in a test booklet, and students who need to scroll through a passage may miss or forget key information that is needed to answer an item.

A. True

B. False


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