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Actions to Improve Physical Activity Among Youth

Executive Summary and Key Messages-Key Findings and Recommendations

1. Evidence suggests that well-designed enhanced physical education (PE) in and of itself increases physical activity among youth and should be widely implemented in schools.

A. True

B. False

Table 1. Summary of Findings and Next Steps for Research

2. Strategies to increase physical activities among children in preschools and childcare settings include each of the following EXCEPT:

A. Provide portable play equipment on playgrounds and other play spaces, and increase time that children spend outside

B. Develop and implement a well-designed PE curriculum

C. Provide staff with training in the delivery of structured physical activity sessions for children and increase the time allocated for such sessions

D. Integrate physically active teaching and learning activities into pre-academic instructional routines

Chapter 1: Introduction-Current Levels of Physical Activity Among Youth

3. Despite the importance of regular physical activity in promoting lifelong health and well-being, daily PE is provided in only 8 percent of elementary schools, 16 percent of middle schools, and 4 percent of high schools.

A. True

B. False

The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans

4. Current science suggests that as with adults, the total amount of physical activity is more important in helping youth achieve health benefits than is any one component or specific mix of activities.

A. True

B. False

Key Guidelines for Children and Adolescents

5. In addition to focusing on aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and bone-strengthening activities, young people should be encouraged to participate in experiences that are appropriate for their age, that are enjoyable, and that:

A. Promote socialization

B. Enhance coordination

C. Build confidence

D. Offer variety

Chapter 2: Methods-Literature Review

6. In order to measure physical activity outcomes for youth, device-based measures, self-reports, and direct observations were used, with devised-based measures being the preferred method when a particular aspect of physical activity was the intervention target.

A. True

B. False


7. Categories of evidence that demonstrate consistent beneficial effects documented across studies and populations are referred to as suggestive evidence.

A. True

B. False

Chapter 3: Results by Intervention Setting-Multi-Component School-Based Interventions

8. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about multi-component school-based Interventions?

A. Multi-component interventions are those in which two or more intervention strategies are concurrently implemented by school staff who interact with interventionists

B. These interventions have usually included a component that aimed to enhance the PE program through increasing physically active time in PE class, adding more PE to the school curriculum, and/or lengthening the PE class time

C. Reviews focusing on these interventions indicate that isolated education or curricular components are more effective than multi-component interventions with educational, curricular, and environmental components

D. Although multi-component school interventions are effective in increasing physical activity during school hours, these interventions are less effective at increasing physical activity outside of school

Physical Education

9. While traditionally, PE has been characterized by sports-and performance-based curriculum and instruction, a newer approach, enhanced PE, is characterized by a focus on increasing overall physical activity, particularly moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity during PE class.

A. True

B. False

Activity Breaks

10. Activity breaks are periods of physical activity that occur outside of the PE class that can occur through regularly scheduled recess and lunch time movement or by implementing 5- to 10-minute breaks during classroom time that may or may not include subject matter curriculum.

A. True

B. False

School Physical Environment

11. Sufficient evidence suggests that interventions to modify the school physical environment alone, including the neighborhood and grounds, building design, facilities, and equipment, will increase physical activity in youth.

A. True

B. False

Preschool and Childcare Center Setting

12. Research suggests that regularly provided, structured physical activity programs can increase the amount and intensity of physical activity and improve motor skills for preschool children.

A. True

B. False

Community Setting

13. The physical form of communities including urban design, land use patterns, and the transportation system is the:

A. Built environment

B. Constructed climate

C. Assembled surroundings

D. Completed neighborhood

Camps and Youth Organizations

14. Camps and scouting organizations increase youth physical activity through strategies, such as providing opportunities for youth to be active during the camp or scouting experiences, or by creating incentives for physical activity as part of organizational goals or policies.

A. True

B. False

15. Recent reviews have concluded that using summer camp or scouting strategies to increase youth physical activity is a promising intervention strategy, with its effectiveness having been consistently shown.

A. True

B. False

Other Community-Based Programs

16. Reviews that evaluated broadly defined interventions set in the community or in community centers studies as well as school plus community interventions as part of a multi-setting review demonstrated that:

A. For the most part, the reviews provided convincing evidence of a positive effect of community strategies on physical activity in youth

B. Extensive evidence suggested that interventions developed in the school setting that include community linkages as part of a comprehensive strengths-based approach can increase youth physical activity

C. Providing supervised access to school playgrounds during non-school hours showed promise, as this type of intervention was found to be associated with increased levels of physical activity in a pilot study of inner city elementary school-aged children

D. None of the above

Family and Home Setting

17. Physical activity interventions focused on the family and home are designed to:

A. Improve health-related behaviors and prevent obesity

B. Promote family bonding and enrich the home environment

C. Build a foundation for lifelong physical and emotional health

D. Decrease the likelihood of developing chronic diseases for all family members

18. Which of the following accurately describes family and home-based physical activity interventions?

A. They may include one or more approaches to support behavioral change, including informational and educational, behavioral and social, and policy and environmental

B. Parents and other family members play important support roles for interventions that primarily take place in settings other than the home, such as schools

C. Interventions that target the home should reflect the reality that families are complex, dynamic, and encompass a variety of structures and cultures

D. All of the above

19. Next Steps for research in the primary health care setting calls for each of the following EXCEPT:

A. Consider the utility of interventions that combine primary care counseling with referral and integration into community youth-focused programs

B. Conduct observational and cohort studies of the effectiveness of primary care counseling on physical activity behavior

C. Identify the optimal age range for effective interventions in primary care settings, as well as intervention effects in normal weight as well as overweight or obese youth

D. Compare intervention effects across race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic groups

Additional Approaches to Consider-Policy

20. PE has been an institution in American schools since the late 19th century, and currently most states mandate PE for students in elementary (78% of states), middle (73%), and high schools (80%).

A. True

B. False

21. A growing body of research addressing the association between physical activity and academic achievement indicates that school-based physical activity can improve grades, standardized test scores, concentration, attention, and:

A. Classroom behavior

B. Peer relationships

C. Cognitive skills

D. Energy level

22. Targeted media campaigns have improved youth health behaviors such as smoking, so social marketing may be a method available to policymakers for increasing physical activity in youth.

A. True

B. False

Technology-Based Approaches

23. In a recent review of active video game interventions in children and adults, evidence was sufficient to suggest that playing active video games increases physical activity, so further development in this area is recommended.

A. True

B. False

Playing Outdoors

24. Several studies have shown, across a wide range of age groups, that spending time outside is associated with increased levels of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, and that dog ownership is related to physical activity among adolescents.

A. True

B. False

25. One strategy that experts believe needs further investigation is to focus on the social aspects of physical activity as a way to increase participation.

A. True

B. False

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