TeachME Professional Development

Learning Disabilities Update

Overview

1. According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), the term "specific learning disability" encompasses each of the following EXCEPT:

A. A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations

B. It includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia

C. Current academic skills must be well below the average range of scores in culturally and linguistically appropriate tests of reading, writing, or mathematics

D. The term does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage


What We Know About LD

2. Learning disabilities (LD) arise from neurological differences in brain structure and function, and while the specific nature of these brain-based disorders is still not well understood, considerable progress has been made in mapping some of the characteristic difficulties of LD to specific brain regions and structures.

A. True

B. False


3. Those who have difficulty understanding how objects are positioned in space are likely to have a specific disability in math, known as dyscalculia.

A. True

B. False


Common Types of Learning Disabilities

4. Individuals with non-verbal learning disabilities often have strengths in the areas of verbal expression, vocabulary, reading, comprehension, auditory memory and attention to detail, but have trouble with math computation and problem solving, visual-spatial tasks and motor coordination, and:

A. Short-term and long-term ability to recall information

B. Spelling, reading and written expression

C. Trouble organizing thoughts on paper

D. Reading body language and social cues


5. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is similar to learning disabilities in that features of this disorder can be attributed to neurochemical imbalances that can be effectively treated with a combination of behavioral and, as needed, pharmacological therapies.

A. True

B. False


Legal Protections for People With LD

6. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504) prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in federally funded programs and activities and permits the withdrawal of funds from programs that fail to comply with the law.

A. True

B. False


Public Perceptions of LD

7. A 2012 survey of public perceptions of LD indicates that while most people correctly say that genetics can be a cause of learning disabilities, many respondents (43 percent) wrongly think that learning disabilities are correlated with IQ.

A. True

B. False


2013 Research on Parents of Children With Learning and Attention Issues

8. Which of the following is NOT one of the categories identified when researching a broad spectrum of attitudes, beliefs, values and challenges among parents of children with learning and attention issues?

A. Those who deny that that their child has an issue so do not seek information or help

B. Those who were struggling with the challenges that come with having a child with learning and attention issues and who report to be in most need of help

C. Those who were conflicted about their ability to manage the needs of their child with these issues

D. Those who were optimistic about their family's journey with learning and attention issues but continue to need information and guidance


GfK Roper 2010 Study on Public Attitudes About Children With Learning Disabilities

9. Recent trends indicate that the general public. parents, and educators increasingly embrace the foundational notion that individuals with LD have unique learning needs and challenges.

A. True

B. False


Troubling Trends

10. A sizable number of parents believe a 5- to 8-year- old child will grow out of typical warning signs of LD which include having trouble using a pen or pencil, matching letters with their sounds, and:

A. Counting and learning numbers

B. Making friends

C. Fluid speech

D. Organizing thoughts


LD in Schools

11. LD is the largest category of students receiving special education services, and _______ of the students are male.

A. One-fourth

B. One-third

C. One-half

D. Two-thirds


Why Are Fewer Students Being Classified as Having LD in Most States?

12. Reasons for the decline in the number of LD students being identified include expansion of and attention to early childhood education, improvement in reading instruction, and a dramatic shift in the way LD is identified.

A. True

B. False


Grade Retention

13. Each of the following is an accurate statement about grade retention for LD students EXCEPT:

A. School-age children with disabilities who are retained are disproportionately black and from lower- income households

B. Retention is linked to increased behavior problems that become more pronounced as children reach adolescence and is also known to highly correlate with dropping out of school

C. Dropouts are three times more likely to have repeated a grade than are high school graduates

D. Students who repeat two grades have an almost 100 percent chance of dropping out of school


Disciplinary Removals

14. The academic performance of students with LD is further compromised by their high rate of disciplinary removals, and only students with diagnosed conduct disorders receive more disciplinary referrals.

A. True

B. False


Student and Parent Goals After High School

15. Parental expectations are important because research has found them to be associated with levels of student achievement and general post-high school outcomes, and low parental expectations tend to align more with current levels of postsecondary success than do the expectations that students with LD have for themselves.

A. True

B. False


LD Beyond School

16. Which of the following is an accurate statement about reports of LD across the life span?

A. As with school-reported data, U.S. Census Bureau surveys indicate significantly higher rates of males reporting to have LD in all age groups, including those 65 and older

B. The prevalence of reported LD is much higher among those living in poverty, and among those 18-64 years of age, the percentage in poverty is almost twice as high as those above poverty

C. U.S. Census survey-based data reveal higher rates of LD among blacks and Hispanics, as with school-reported data

D. One-third of young adults with LD reported having some type of involvement with the criminal justice system within eight years of leaving high school, and one in four have been arrested


Labor Force Status

17. Over the last several years, the rate of employment among working-age adults with LD has improved, and working-age adults with LD not in the labor force decreased significantly, probably because they have taken advantage of the rights afforded to them under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

A. True

B. False


Emerging Issues

18. There are many issues that affect the well-being of individuals with LD for which there are insufficient information and data, and some of the available data are based on research done with populations that are sufficiently different as to prevent researchers from drawing meaningful conclusions.

A. True

B. False


Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and Assessments

19. While for students with LD the widespread adoption of the CCSS should accelerate a practice that links the development of a student's Individualized Education Program (IEP) directly to grade-level standards, ensuring that these students have access to the general education curriculum aligned to the CCSS will require significant retooling of education practices.

A. True

B. False


Online Learning

20. The versatility and flexibility of online learning provides opportunities for students with LD not available in traditional school settings, and pace and presentation of instruction can be customized on a student-by-student basis, providing truly personalized and individualized instruction for students with LD.

A. True

B. False


Charter Schools

21. Many parents of students with LD find charter schools to be highly desirable because of their ability to pay close attention to curriculum, individualize instruction, and provide an inclusive approach to teaching all students.

A. True

B. False


Juvenile Justice

22. Compared to the prevalence of LD in the general population, a disproportionately high rate of adjudicated and incarcerated juveniles are identified as having disabilities, and this is consistently associated with each of the following EXCEPT:

A. Marginal literacy

B. Poorly developed social skills

C. Underlying mental health problems

D. Inadequate school and community supports


Conclusions

23. As an increasing percentage of students with LD have been receiving most of their instruction in general education classrooms, positive academic achievement has resulted, specifically on measures of reading and math.

A. True

B. False


24. To better facilitate moving successfully from school to college and careers, ______________ needs to be improved, with increased input from parents and more direct involvement by students.

A. Transition planning

B. The outline for high school success

C. Advocacy and perseverance

D. None of the above


25. The well-being of individuals with LD needs to continue to be a priority as society changes, school transformation efforts are implemented, instructional technologies are adopted and assistive technologies are introduced, as each of these will influence the reality of individuals with LD.

A. True

B. False


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