1. Experts suggest that early childhood education can provide economic return, greatly help children and parents, and benefit society by lowering incidents of involvement in the criminal justice system and:
A. Promoting individual and community support of education
B. Improving cognitive and non-cognitive abilities, which helps with overall productivity
C. Reducing the need for remedial education
D. Enhancing overall physical and psychological health and wellness of children
2. Researchers have established that early childhood is a period in which profound advances take place in individuals' reasoning, language acquisition, and problem solving, and more importantly, that a child's environment, including early childhood education settings, can dramatically influence the degree and pace of these advances by supporting development.
3. Early childhood education programs can strengthen parents' attachment to the labor force and increase their earnings potential, which has potential benefits for children, such as higher health care expenditures, higher education spending, more consistently nutritious food, and reduced household budgeting stress.
4. The authors report that early childhood investments take many forms, including each of the following EXCEPT:
A. Increasing the amount and quality of parental and caregiver time, attention, and education and training
B. Providing and improving instructional materials and furnishing childcare curricula
C. Improving children's buy-in to education which leads to generational economic benefits
D. Modifying parental habits and behaviors
5. The "Proficiency Brings Proficiency" Model of education states that early investments can have large impacts if initially learned skills serve a multiplier, or complement, for later skills.
6. Today, parents of all income levels are spending less time with their children than previous generations, probably because of the demands of employment, the numerous commitments that school age children face, and various societal and personal responsibilities.
7. Demographic changes tend to contribute to greater resource inequality between children born to parents with more and less education, as demonstrated by:
A. Parents with less education and therefore lower average lifetime earnings, tend to have children earlier in their careers when their earnings are low
B. The gap in age at first birth has increased between low-and highly-educated women, further contributing to the gap in family resources experienced by children born to more and less educated parents
C. High rates of divorce and non-marital childbearing among low-income parents increase the disparities in resources available to children
D. All of the above
8. Existing literature confirms that lower child care costs boost maternal employment, and increased attachment to the labor force along with greater work experience translate into long-term earnings gains for parents.
9. Within the same types of early childhood interventions, effects may differ because of resource levels, teacher training requirements, and:
A. Program duration
B. Class size and teacher-student ratio
C. Learning standards
D. Program evaluations and improvements
10. A meta-analysis of maternal home visiting programs found that these interventions significantly improved parenting behavior and parenting attitudes, while increasing schooling enrollment among mothers.
11. The Abecedarian Project, a landmark study that tracked the progress of a group of poor children who received full time high quality early education, showed each of the following results EXCEPT:
A. At ages 8 and 12, program participants had higher cognitive scores and scored higher on math and reading achievement tests, and these achievement gains persisted through ages 15 and 21
B. Participants had higher high school graduation and college attendance rates, as well as more years of schooling
C. At age 30, participants had income gains of more than 40 percent relative to the control group
D. The benefits of Abecedarian also accrued to parents, as the program increased mothers' employment and increased maternal earnings by about $90,000 over the mother's career
12. Head Start programs have been found to make gains beyond academic and labor market success, including improving parental support, nutritional assistance, and health services, which enhance child development.
13. Experts have found a clear explanation for the fade-out that tends to occur with cognitive gains made in pre-school, which is that students who don't attend preschool eventually catch up in their academic skills which enables them to do as well as those who participated in early childhood education.
14. In addition to benefitting government and society by reducing the need for remedial education, decreasing involvement in the criminal justice system and improving overall health, early childhood education programs also:
A. Help increase the ability to address economic inequality and the diminishing rates of upward mobility
B. Improve our country's fiscal health by strengthening human capital
C. Generate a return to society ranging from $5.80 to $22.10 for each dollar spent on the program
D. Increase tax revenues and decrease transfer payments such as cash assistance
15. Many researchers have studied the effects of curriculum that focuses on cognitive and non-cognitive skills in early education and generally agree that while social and emotional development is important, the primary focus must be on developing academic skills, particularly in the areas of language and vocabulary.
16. Providing teachers with expert coaching or mentoring programs is one way to improve curriculum implementation and support high-quality student-teacher interactions, and, as a result, improve students outcomes.
17. Studies of recent programs have found that the lifetime earnings gains well exceed the cost, implying a net benefit of between:
A. $3,000 and $15,000 per child
B. $5,000 and $20,000 per child
C. $8,000 and $25,000 per child
D. $11,000 and $30,000 per child
18. High-quality preschool programs for three to four year old children can build a strong skills foundation for school, as well as help meet childcare needs for working parents, and offer a win-win opportunity for program participants, their parents, and society as a whole.
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