TeachME Professional Development

Safe and Violence-Free Schools: An Update

Violence Prevention and Safe Schools

1. According to experts, school violence is youth violence that occurs on school property, on the way to or from school or school-sponsored events, or during a school-sponsored activity, and a young person can be a victim, a perpetrator, or a witness of school violence.

A. True

B. False

A Balanced Approach to Safe Schools

2. Effective approaches to prevent school violence require attention at the school and community level and include key elements of balance, communication, support, and:

A. Flexibility

B. Commitment

C. Connectedness

D. Consistency

Working Together To Create Safe Schools

3. Since students are often victims and perpetrators of school violence, specific strategies are recommended to help them promote safety, including each of the following EXCEPT:

A. Initiate programs to promote student responsibility for safer schools, and create a student leader group consisting of leaders from all formal and informal campus groups

B. Have them articipate in the development and implementation of workshops and classroom activities to promote school safety

C. Encourage student input in district policy by appointing one or more student representatives to the school board who can participate in discussions and planning but not be voting members

D. Create and publicize safety incentive programs that share a percentage of the districts saving with schools if vandalism is reduced, which will encourage students to take responsibility for violence prevention

Assessing School Safety as a Facet of School Climate

4. The terms school climate and school culture are often used synonymously to represent the concept of a learning environment that influences behavior and academic progress.

A. True

B. False

Primary and Secondary Prevention Programs

5. Primary prevention programs that offer promise for forestalling violence include those that focus on improving individual affective, cognitive and behavior skills or on modifying the learning conditions for aggression.

A. True

B. False

6. For youth who have already shown seriously aggressive and violent behavior, the programs that appear to be most effective are those that are:

A. Intense and family-focused

B. Adaptive and developmental

C. Opportunistic and non-conventional

D. Sustained and multimodal

Design and Evaluation of Intervention Efforts

7. Intervention programs should be carefully designed to fit the specific needs of the target group, and program design must take into account significant differentiating factors identified in psychological research as relevant to an intervention's success.

A. True

B. False

Societal Factors Affecting the Success of Interventions

8. A society-wide effort is required to change existing macrosocial considerations that impact aggression and violence, which includes focusing each of the following areas EXCEPT:

A. Lack of social/community education and support

B. Prejudice and racism, particularly because strongly prejudiced attitudes about particular social or cultural groups, or being a member of a group subjected to prejudice and discrimination is a risk factor for violence

C. Poverty, social, and economic inequality, and the contextual factors that derive from these conditions

D. Misunderstanding of cultural differences

School Violence Prevention

9. Individual level school violence prevention strategies include strengthening young people's abilities to effectively solve difficulties that arise and their opportunities to participate in prosocial activities.

A. True

B. False

10. Service delivery characteristics of an effective violence prevention programs should include which of the following?

A. The intervention recognizes that physical/survival needs must be met before skills can be learned or behavior changed

B. The program is flexible in responding to population's needs and is not limited by tradition, practices, or structures

C. The intervention is based on an empowerment model that emphasizes strengths and respects the participant's needs and desires

D. All of the above

Youth Violence: Risk and Protective Factors

11. Although risk factors increase the likelihood that a young person will become violent, such factors are not direct causes of youth violence but rather contributing elements.

A. True

B. False

Protective Factors for the Perpetration of Youth Violence

12. High IQ, high grade point average, and positive coping mechanisms are considered developmental protective factors for the perpetration of youth violence.

A. True

B. False

Safe Communities-Safe Schools Model Fact Sheet

13. Components of a safe school plan generally include convening a safe school planning team, conducting a school site assessment, creating and implement violence prevention programs to address school safety, establishing a social support team, and:

A. Developing a crisis response team

B. Implementing ongoing staff development

C. Ensuring quality facilities and technology

D. Fostering family and community involvement

14. Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) is a "Blueprint" classroom based violence prevention program for elementary students that teaches skills in the domains of self-control, emotional understanding, positive self-esteem, relationships, and interpersonal problem-solving.

A. True

B. False

A Sampling of Programs Related to Violence Prevention from SAMHSA-MST for Juvenile Offenders

15. Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an intervention that can be delivered at school or at home, addresses the multidimensional nature of behavior problems in troubled youth by focusing on the factors in each youth's social network that are contributing to his or her antisocial behavior.

A. True

B. False

Anti-Bias and Conflict Resolution Curricula: Theory and Practice

16. While the goal of many violence prevention programs is to simply end conflict and violence, others are satisfied only when participants commit to the principles of active nonviolence, social harmony and justice as an integral part of their lives.

A. True

B. False

The Effectiveness of Universal School-Based Programs for the Prevention of Violent and Aggressive Behavior

17. Which of the following is NOT one of the characteristics of universal school-based violence programs designed to reduce and prevent violent and aggressive behavior among children and adults?

A. These programs often teach all students in a school or school grade about the problem of violence and its prevention

B. They may cover one or more topics or skills intended to reduce aggressive or violent behavior such as emotional self-awareness, emotional control, self-esteem, positive social skills, social problem solving, conflict resolution, and team work

C. Children who have already manifested violent or aggressive behavior are provided more intense interventions away from the general classroom population

D. These programs might be targeted by grade or school in high-risk areas, defined by residents' low SES or high crime rates

18. Although some universal programs cite social learning theory as the foundation for their intervention designs, other programs are founded on the theory that they will be most effective if they modify the broader environment of the child,

A. True

B. False

19. When comparing the effects of programs in communities with lower SES and higher crime rates to those absent of both of these factors, universal-based programs were significantly more well-received in the higher SES/lower crime areas.

A. True

B. False

20. While school-based programs that target behavioral, emotional, and learning problems have many benefits, many experts contend that other factors such as homelessness, lack of nutrition and medical care, racial and cultural discrimination, and other burdens must also be addressed to help struggling children.

A. True

B. False

Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools

21. Effective schools create a violence prevention and response plan and form a team that can ensure it is implemented, using approaches and strategies based on:

A. Expert opinion

B. Research about what works

C. Specific school needs

D. Available resources and support

Action Steps by Students

22. Students can help create safe schools by listening to friends if they are sharing troubling feelings or thoughts and encouraging them to get help, by creating, joining, or supporting student organizations that combat violence, and by helping to develop and participate in activities that promote:

A. Personal and community commitment

B. Resilience and self-efficacy

C. Bonding with school, social institutions, and family

D. Student understanding of differences and that respect the rights of all

Early Warning Signs

23. Educators, parents, and students can ensure that the early warning signs of school violence are not misinterpreted by using several significant principles to better understand them, including each of the following EXCEPT:

A. Do no harm and avoid stereotypes

B. View warning signs with a communal and cultural context

C. Understand violence and aggression within the context of antecedent factors that exist

D. Recognize that children typically exhibit multiple warning signs

Precursors of the Outbreak of Conflict at School

24. Several indicators often precede the outbreak of conflict at school, including an increasing number of behavior infractions, a perception of unfairness resulting from disciplinary action, and an atmosphere of unrest that transfers from the community to the school.

A. True

B. False

Protecting Students from Violence

25. One strategy to be proactive about protecting students from violence is to incorporate violence prevention and conflict resolution into activities, such as by addressing one aspect of violence prevention in an art project at home or in a club.

A. True

B. False

How to Help Your Child Avoid Violent Conflicts

26. The best thing parents can do to teach their children to be nonviolent is to encourage them to always walk away when violence is occurring, as becoming involved in someone else's issues may increase the likelihood that they themselves will become victims.

A. True

B. False

Angry and Aggressive Students-Types of Aggression

27. Proactive aggression is different from reactive aggression in that the proactive type is frequently highly emotional and is often the result of biased or deficient cognitive processing on the part of the student.

A. True

B. False

Implications for Administrators

28. While approximately 60-80% of secondary school children are behaviorally skilled, non-aggressive, and academically goal oriented, approximately _______ have severe and pervasive problems with anger and aggression.

A. 3-5%

B. 6-8%

C. 9-11%

D. 12-14%

Fact Sheet: Oppositional Defiant Disorder

29. Which of the following are NOT generally included as symptoms for oppositional defiant behavior?

A. Excessively losing one's temper or arguing with adults

B. Defying adults or refusing adult requests or rules more than normal for the age group, or deliberately annoying others

C. Being physically cruel to people or animals or destroying property of others

D. Blaming others for one's own mistakes or misbehavior or being overly touchy or easily annoyed

Conduct Disorders

30. Experts believe that the greatest contributing factor to a child developing a conduct disorder is likely the child's temperament and the way the family responds to that temperament.

A. True

B. False

Hate Crimes: Addressing Multicultural Issues to Insure a Safe School Environment

31. In schools, while hate crimes are usually carried out against a targeted individual, this one action can effect an entire student body, a particular group, and the community as a whole.

A. True

B. False

Bullying: Peer Abuse in Schools

32. According to the authors, several studies suggest that bullying in early childhood may be an early sign of the development of each of the following characteristics EXCEPT;

A. Violent tendencies

B. Relationship difficulties

C. Delinquency

D. Criminality

A Comprehensive Approach: Strategies for Parents

33. The best protection parents can offer children who are involved in a bully/victim conflict is to foster their child's ability to problem-solve in order to avoid conflicts, and to ask for help when needed.

A. True

B. False

Classroom Resources

34. Both bullies and their victims need help in learning new ways to get along in school, about using and abusing power, and about the differences between negotiating and demanding, while also being taught to consider the needs, behaviors, and feelings of others.

A. True

B. False

Sexual Harassment: Characteristics of Sexual Harassment Behaviors

35. The harm caused by sexual harassment is serious and must be considered according to:

A. The nature of the act

B. The age of the victim

C. The victim's relationship to the offender

D. All of the above

Conceptualizing Help for Students Victimized by Bullies

36. While empirically-supported bullying prevention programs can be helpful, they are quite limited in their long-term impact, and often work against efforts to improve how schools address other barriers to learning and teaching and re-engage disconnected students.

A. True

B. False

Concluding Comments

37. Experts have concluded that the time has come for schools to move away from stand-alone programs for addressing problems such as bullying, but rather use each concern that rises to a high policy level as an opportunity to catalyze and leverage systemic change and to develop a comprehensive and equitable system.

A. True

B. False

Ideas into Practice: Public Policy Recommendations

38. Schools should strive to provide children with opportunities to follow sound principles of personal safety, strengthen academic and social skills, develop sound peer relationships, and learn effective nonviolent solutions to social conflict by providing interventions that are:

A. Balanced and fluid

B. Targeted and theoretical

C. Repeated and developmentally appropriate

D. Diverse and culturally sound

39. Research has shown that a history of previous violence is the best predictor of future violence, and one way to help ameliorate the damaging effects of violence and reduce further violence is to provide psychological health services for young perpetrators, victims, and witnesses of violent events.

A. True

B. False

40. In order to help dispel stereotypes, encourage broader intercultural understanding and appreciation, and reduce the incidence of hate violence, professionals encourage schools, colleges, and universities to adopt anti-bias and conflict resolution education.

A. True

B. False

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