TeachME Professional Development

Transforming Student and Learning Supports

Introduction: Tweaking is Not Enough-The Imperative for Transformation

1. In general, current approaches to student and learning supports are not collaborative, so schools must transform how they connect with homes and communities so they can work together in pursuing shared goals related to the general well-being of the young and society.

A. True

B. False


Why the Fragmentation?

2. Underlying fragmentation in schools is a fundamental policy problem, namely the long-standing marginalization of student and learning supports in school improvement policy and practice.

A. True

B. False


Part I: Reframing for Transformation-Introduction

3. In order to transform learning and students, a learning support component that is fully integrated with the instructional and management governance components must be developed in a manner that is unified, equitable, comprehensive and:

A. Universal

B. Expansive

C. Systemic

D. Cursory


Chapter 1. Viewing School Improvement Through Additional Lenses

4. When teachers across the country are asked, "Most days, how many of your students come to class motivationally ready and able to learn what you have planned to teach them?", the response in rural schools serving economically disadvantaged families is about 20%-25%%, while in suburbia teaches say about 60% fit that profile.

A. True

B. False


Third Lens: Engaging and Re-engaging Students in Classroom Learning

5. Although an often stated assumption is that stopping misbehavior will make a student amenable to teaching, experts believe that greater attention should be paid to minimizing behavior control strategies and maximizing:

A. Overall social-emotional well-being that stimulates learning

B. Intrinsic motivation for classroom learning

C. External rewards from peers and school officials

D. Enrichment activities that promote interest


Chapter . Reframing Policy

6. Learning supports are defined as the resources, strategies, and practices that provide physical, social, emotional, and intellectual supports to enable all students to have an equal opportunity for success at school by directly addressing barriers to learning and teaching.

A. True

B. False


School Accountability

7. Which of the following is an accurate statement about school accountability?

A. School accountability is a policy tool with extraordinary power to reshape schools for good and for bad, but currently the only indicators that really count are achievement test scores

B. Since achievement tests drive school accountability, what such tests measure has become the be all and end all of what is attended to by many decision makers

C. These factors produce a growing disconnect between the realities of what it takes to improve academic performance and the direction in which many policy makers and school reformers are leading the public

D. All of the above


Chapter 3. Reframing Intervention for Student and Learning Support-Exhibit 3.2

8. School improvement must include plans to develop a more effective system for directly dealing with factors that keep too many students from succeeding at school and beyond, and the first step has to be developing a management component that will support content areas of classroom learning.

A. True

B. False


Continuum of Integrated Subsystem: Expanding the 3-Tier Model

9. A fundamental facet of a unified and comprehensive system of learning supports is an integrated continuum of interventions that strives to accomplish each of the following EXCEPT:

A. Foster a caring and nurturing environment

B. Promote healthy development and prevent problems

C. Intervene early to address problems as soon after onset as is feasible

D. Assist with chronic and severe problems


10. When supporting all students, emphasis includes re-engaging those who are disconnected, as well as addressing barriers to learning and teaching through improving personalized instruction and increasing accommodations and special assistance when necessary.

A. True

B. False


Part II. Six Arenas for Classroom and School-Wide Student and Learning Supports

11. While many schools are focused on building better and better systems for screening and referring students for special assistance, in some schools, the number of referrals is so large and the system so overwhelmed that only a small percentage of students are helped.

A. True

B. False


Chapter 4. Classroom-Based Learning Supports to Enable Learning and Teaching

12. Which of the following is NOT one of current limitations classrooms face when addressing barriers to learning and teaching and working to re-engage disconnected students?

A. Teaching is organized at most schools in ways that presume classroom teachers can do the job alone and insufficient attention is being paid to creating a stimulating, caring, and manageable learning environment

B. Efforts to personalize instruction are interpreted in terms of adopting current curriculum and are not adequately differentiating instruction with respect to learning style differences

C. Classroom are not focusing enough on promoting intrinsic motivation, preventing problems, responding as soon as feasible after problems arise, and providing appropriate special assistance when students display specific problems

D. Teachers' professional development has not effectively prepared them with respect to understanding intrinsic motivation, and this contributes to a tendency to over-rely on rewards and punishment as strategies for teaching and controlling behavior


13. Classrooms should not be used as a first response when special assistance for a student and family is needed, as this places undue pressure on teachers to reach outside of their areas of expertise.

A. True

B. False


14. Designing classrooms from a motivational perspective calls for an emphasis on authentic, problem based, and discovery oriented interventions, which is known as intrapersonal learning.

A. True

B. False


What's the First Step?-Personalized Instruction

15. From a psychological perspective, it is a student's perception that determines whether the instructional fit or match is good or bad, so personalizing instruction means ensuring conditions for learning are perceived by the learner as good ways to attain goals s/he wants to reach.

A. True

B. False


Where Does Response to Intervention Fit as Learning Support?

16. In the Response to Intervention (RtI) strategy, one question that arises is whether the problem stems from factors that have produced avoidance motivation to curricula content and instructional process, known as:

A. Critical student dispositions

B. Core student traits

C. Pivotal student propensities

D. Essential student tendencies


About Enhancing The Capability Of Student And Learning Supports Staff To Collaborate In The Classroom

17. The most effective collaboration support staff such as school psychologists, counselors and social workers can have with teachers is to consult and make recommendations about addressing student concerns as they arise.

A. True

B. False


Needed Enrichment Opportunities As A Key Facet of Learning Supports

18. Each of the following is an accurate statement about using enrichment activities in the classroom EXCEPT:

A. Enrichment activities increase the possibilities for creating a good motivational match and for facilitating learning development and remediation

B. Enrichment embellishes the classroom and school environment and increases the likelihood that students will discover new interests, information, and skills through exploration, inquiry, discovery and recreation

C. The activities can play a role in preventing, minimizing and overcoming school and individual problems

D. Using enrichment activities as a reward in a behavior modification strategy is recommended as a way to re-engage students


Learning Supports Help Create and Maintain a Positive Climate

19. Each individual at a school has a personal view of the climate in a classroom and school-wide which reflects the degree to which the setting is seen as enhancing or threatening the individual feelings of competence, relatedness to significant others in the setting, and:

A. Resoluteness

B. Security

C. Self-determination

D. Fulfillment


A Couple of Notes About Climate

20. Organizational research indicates the profound role accountability pressures play in shaping organizational climate, and the likelihood that increasing demands for higher achievement tests scores and control of student behavior contribute to a school climate that is reactive and over-controlling.

A. True

B. False


Chapter 5. Supports for Transitions

21. Transitional problems may occur when students start school, change schools, move to the next grade level, or encounter hassles before, after, or during school, and they almost always stem from interpersonal deficiencies.

A. True

B. False


Focus on Students Starting School and Newcomers

22. In order to immediately address adjustment problems that occur in the new setting, every school needs early warning and response procedures that quickly identify any new student, family, or staff who is having adjustments problems, so that school officials may provide supports that aid those with minor adjustment problems, and initiate special assistant when necessary to those who have major adjustment problems.

A. True

B. False


Matriculation Concerns

23. Since schools are unlikely to ever have the type of student-counselor ratio that is advocated, an early priority often is the recruitment, training, and supervision of interested personnel and volunteers/mentors to fill certain gaps so that counseling personnel can be freed up to provide more social-emotional counseling and related supports to those in need.

A. True

B. False


Chapter 6. Home Involvement, Engagement, and Re-engagement in School-Reflecting on Those Who Aren't Involved

24. Endeavors to involve families whose youngsters are doing poorly often result in parents becoming less involved, since a parent of such a youngster usually is called to school to explore the child's problems and often leaves with a sense of frustration, anger, and guilt.

A. True

B. False


Exhibit 6.1 General Types and Forms of Barriers to Home Involvement

25. An example of an 'interpersonal barrier' to home involvement that reflects on practical deterrents is when specific teachers and parents feel home participation is not worth the effort or feel threatened by such involvement.

A. True

B. False


Underlying Rationales for Involving the Home

26. In contrast to professional centered approaches, a family-orientated agenda for promoting home involvement enhances a sense of community, mobilizes resources and supports, and is likely to encourage each of the following EXCEPT:

A. Sharing responsibility and collaboration

B. Protecting family integrity and strengthening family functioning

C. Involving families in school governance advocacy efforts

D. Ensuring proactive services


Exhibit 6.2 Framing a Continuum of Interventions for Home Involvement

27. When reframing a continuum of intervention for home involvement, the first and most critical step is engaging participation with those in the home who are most capable of helping students strengthen their academic skills.

A. True

B. False


A Few Comments About Enhancing Understanding of Engagement and Re-Engagement

28. In general, research indicates that engagement is associated with positive outcomes and is higher when conditions are supportive, authentic, ensure opportunities for choice, and provide sufficient structure.

A. True

B. False


Concluding Comments

29. Effective interventions for enhancing home involvement must include school-wide and classroom based efforts designed to strengthen the home situation, enhance family problem solving capabilities, increase support for student development, learning, and well-being, and strengthen schools and the community.

A. True

B. False


Chapter 7. Community Outreach and Collaborative Engagement

30. Experts contend that clear and unchanging research indicates that at most, teaching accounts for about ___ percent of student achievement outcomes, while socioeconomic factors account for about ___ percent.

A. 10; 70

B. 15; 60

C. 20; 50

D. 25; 40


Framing and Designing Interventions for Community Involvement and Collaborative Engagement

31. Which of the following is NOT one of the recommended school/district efforts to enhance community connections?

A. Outreaching to a select and limited range of community entities who are likely to have the most impact

B. Developing immediate links and connections with community resources that can help fill critical intervention gaps for addressing shared problems

C. Establishing an effective operational infrastructure for a school-community collaborative

D. Blending/weaving/redeploying school and community resources where feasible to help with system development


Toward Developing a School-Community Collaborative

32. When establishing an effective school-community collaborative, the early priority is to create a workgroup charged with developing existing school resources and other human and social capital found within the community.

A. True

B. False


Chapter 8. Crises Assistance and Prevention

33. Crisis intervention is for responding to, minimizing the impact of, and preventing school and personal crises, and the first concern must be to ensure physical safety and provide medical first aid.

A. True

B. False


What are Priorities in Enhancing Crises Assistance and Prevention?

34. When upgrading crisis intervention planning and response capability, early tasks include reviewing strategic and action plans for crisis response and prevention, preparing all at a school for responding to the different types of emergencies, and implementing recovery efforts.

A. True

B. False


Exhibit 8.2 About Psychological First Aid in Schools

35. The basic objectives of a Psychological First Aid provider in schools include:

A. Establishing a positive connection with students and staff members in a non-intrusive, compassionate manner

B. Helping students and staff members identify their immediate needs and concerns and offering practical assitance and information

C. Connecting students and staff members as soon as possible to social support networks, empowering staff and family members, friends, coaches, and other school or community groups and acknowledging their coping efforts and strengths and supporting adaptive coping

D. All of the above


About Designing Recovery Efforts

36. While counseling and other special supports are recommended during the aftermath of any school crisis, classroom discussions and activities that emphasize expression of feelings about the crisis should be avoided because they are often too anxiety provoking.

A. True

B. False


Chapter 9. Student and Family Special Assistance

37. Special assistance to support learning and teaching must always include specialized interventions, as simply extending general strategies tends to be ineffective.

A. True

B. False


Exhibit 9.2 Array of Special Assistance

38. When helping students acquire basic knowledge, skills and interests related to age-appropriate tasks, basic strategies include each of the following EXCEPT:

A. Providing modifications that are aligned with where the learner should be performing, rather than where the learner currently is

B. Using a range of accommodations and technical moves to enhance motivation, sensory intake and processing, decision making and output

C. Initiating problem-solving conferences with parents and the student, expanding options and opportunities for decision making

D. Offering out-of-class tutoring, supportive and stress reduction counseling, and parent training related to helping a student learn and perform


Framing and Designing Interventions for Student and Family Special Assistance

39. For those students with severe and chronic problems and those mandated for special education programs, special assistance is integrated with other facets of the comprehensive system of learning supports, with an emphasis on enhancing:

A. External and intrinsic motivation

B. Protective factors and resilience

C. The system of care

D. None of the above


Doing More Students and Family Special Assistance in the Classroom

40. Besides adding learning options for those students who need special assistance and accommodations, it is imperative to accept a wider range of behavior than usually is tolerated while working on acceptable behavioral alternatives.

A. True

B. False


Are Special Training Programs the Answer

41. Poor social-emotional development is a greatly identified concern and contributing factor in a wide range of educational, psychosocial, and mental health problems, and training programs to improve social-emotional learning and interpersonal problem solving have promise both for prevention and correction.

A. True

B. False


Addressing Chronic Misbehavior and Engagement as a Special Assistance Priority

42. For youngsters highly motivated to pursue deviancy, intervention might focus on helping these youngsters identify and follow through on a range of valued, socially appropriate alternatives to deviant activities that produce greater feelings of self-determination, competence, and:

A. Agency

B. Acceptance

C. Relatedness

D. Alliance


Part III. Making it Happen

43. One old idea that must be modified in order to transform current education practices is that adapting a simple continuum of interventions is a sufficient framework for transforming the nature and scope of school-based student/learning supports.

A. True

B. False


Chapter 10. Major Phases and Key Facets of Transforming Student and Learning Supports

44. In order to facilitate substantive and sustainable transformation, sufficient attention and time must be given to establishing an operational infrastructure, creating readiness, developing a design and multi-year strategic plan, and:

A. Enhancing coordination of current interventions that have proven success

B. Reworking an organization's daily operational infrastructure to support development and sustainability of the changes

C. Strengthening direct individual and wrap-around services

D. Focusing on circumscribed, selective, and attainable goals


What are Major Phases and Key Facets of Systemic Change?

45. During the evolution phase of systemic change, the priority is providing for continuous quality improvement and ongoing support in ways that enable stakeholders to become a community of learners who creatively pursue renewal.

A. True

B. False


Chapter 11. A Reworked Operational Infrastructure for Daily Implementation- Figure 11.2

46. A system development leadership team focuses on all students and the resources, programs, and system to address barriers, while specific individuals and discrete services are covered by:

A. An action-review team

B. A goal directed team

C. A specialized referral team

D. A case-oriented team


Why Connect Learning Support Across a Complex or Family of Schools

47. A multi-site council can be particularly useful for integrating the efforts of high schools and their feeder middle and elementary schools to support transitions as well as families who may have several students in need of special attention across sites.

A. True

B. False


Chapter 12. Processes and Lessons Learned in Facilitating Systemic Transformation

48. The use of mentors and coaches is recommended to guide systemic change during the transformation process and to assist in the development of clear action plans.

A. True

B. False


49. Which of the following is NOT generally one of incentives for change that should be considered when planning and facilitating transformation.

A. Extraneously-oriented goals

B. Expectations for success

C. Recognition

D. Rewards and protections for problems that arise


Multi-Year Strategic Plan

50. When developing multi-year strategic transformation plans, districts and communities must be the central focus because if priorities are not established at this level, it is unlikely that sustained change will occur at the classroom or student level.

A. True

B. False


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