TeachME Professional Development

Infant-Toddler Development and School Readiness


1. Research and theory provide some general principles that guide the understanding of the relationship between infant/toddler development and school readiness. These principles include all but:

A. Children are active participants in shaping their own development

B. Relationships and experiences are the primary ways development occurs

C. Development and learning occur in multiple systems or contexts, including the family, early care and education programs, and broader culture

D. The rates of development among children are generally quite similar

Executive Summary

2. The five school readiness domains are perceptual, motor, and physical development; social and emotional development; approaches to learning; language and communication; and:

A. Recall and memory

B. Environmental adaptations

C. Cognition

D. None of the above


3. According to the research on toddlers and infants in regards to school readiness, the following conclusions were made:

A. Supporting school readiness during the infant/toddler period requires attention to all developmental domains

B. Program design and implementation should be informed by past research on infant and toddler development

C. The similar developmental characteristics of infants and toddlers require age-appropriate strategies for supporting school readiness

D. Cross-systems collaboration is not necessarily required for early care and education to meet its true potential to support the development of infants and toddlers.


4. Until very recently, the majority of work in school readiness has focused on the preschool period.

A. True

B. False

What Is School Readiness for Infants and Toddlers?

5. While applying the term school readiness to infants and toddlers can be controversial, a large body of research suggests that birth to age 3 is a unique developmental period and so school readiness for this age group must be defined and described differently than it is for older children

A. True

B. False

Guiding Developmental Principles

6. Each of the following statements regarding guiding developmental principles are true EXCEPT:

A. Relationships and experiences are the primary ways development occurs

B. Infants and toddlers develop through adult-child and child-child relationship

C. Development is uniform and fixed

D. Infants and toddlers develop through exploring their world, both alone and with others

Perceptual, Motor and Physical Development

7. Research indicates that extreme abuse or neglect leads to undergrowth in brain areas needed for higher thinking abilities while also leading to overdevelopment in areas associated with:

A. Inhibition

B. Fear

C. Hyper-sensitivity

D. Mistrust

8. Which of the following accurately describes the relationship between obesity and infant care practices?

A. Recent research indicates that infants who are fed formula are approximately 1 and a half times more likely to be obese by age two than infants who are breastfed for the first 6 months of life

B. The introduction of solid food prior to 6 months of age is linked to being overweight at a young age

C. Infants/children who are fed by their caregivers are less likely to be overweight than those who are self-fed

D. Putting infants to sleep while drinking a bottle may contribute to childhood obesity

9. Although relatively little research has focused on general or overall physical health and school readiness and academic outcomes, emerging findings suggest that physical well-being and motor development are important components of school readiness.

A. True

B. False

Social and Emotional Development

10. The Social and Emotional Development domain, which is the foundation for children's mental health and well-being, includes the core concepts of temperament, emotional and behavior regulation, peer relationships, and:

A. Optimism

B. Nurturing

C. Attachment

D. Perception

11. The temperament of young children is often grouped within these three categories: positive, negative, or apathetic.

A. True

B. False

12. One key aspect of social-emotional development during the first 3 years of life is an infant's growing capacity to experience, express, and then regulate his/her emotional state

A. True

B. False

Four Phases of Attachment

13. The phase of attachment known as discriminating sociability, that occurs between 2 months to 7 months, includes the following behaviors EXCEPT:

A. Infants begin to show a preference for specific caregivers and respond differentially to them

B. Infants begin to gain a sense of trust that their needs will be met promptly

C. Infants normally accept caregiving from anyone

D. Infants will not protest when separated

14. Which is a true statement about attachment?

A. Forming healthy attachments and relationships with family members, care providers, and peers provides the developing infant and toddler a secure base and context from which to explore the world and build knowledge

B. In general, children with secure attachments have better outcomes, both socially and academically, and an insecure attachment will always have a doomed outcome

C. The term chaotic attachment disorder refers to a very small percent of children who appear to have no special attachment relationship with parents or teachers and do not display a healthy fear of strangers

D. None of the above

Approaches to Learning

15. Approaches to learning includes both social and cognitive developmental skills as they relate specifically to learning experiences and within educational settings.

A. True

B. False

16. Executive functioning is a term used to describe many abilities, including the ability to delay gratification, think before reacting, figure out where to direct attention in order to learn and be safe, and remember things that have been learned before.

A. True

B. False

Language and Communication

17. Communication skills that emerge early begin to set the stage for later language competence and school success. Concepts important to language development include:

A. Receptive and expressive language abilities

B. Joint attention

C. Language environments

D. All of these

18. Language development emerges from interactions between the infant and responsive adults, and in order for language abilities to fully develop, interested adults must respond to the communication attempts of the young child.

A. True

B. False


19. Foundational cognitive abilities important for later school success are established early in infancy, and these include information-processing mechanisms such as attention, memory, and categorization, imitation, and:

A. Visual processing

B. Pretend play

C. Auditory response

D. Exploration


20. The developmental characteristics of infants and toddlers require strategies to support school readiness that are aligned with approaches appropriate for older children.

A. True

B. False

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