TeachME Professional Development

Foundational Skills to Support Early Reading Understanding

Introduction

1. Experts contend that in order to develop literacy, students need instruction in foundational reading skills and reading comprehension skills.

A. True

B. False


Overarching Themes

2. Researchers and practitioners highlight three interrelated themes for improving instruction in foundational reading skills, including each of the following EXCEPT:

A. The effectiveness of instruction in alphabetics, fluency, and vocabulary must be reinforced

B. A rich collection of resources to develop foundational skills must be provided to ensure success

C. Instruction must be provided in broad oral language skills

D. All aspects of reading instruction must be integrated


Table I.1. Recommendations and Corresponding Levels of Evidence

3. Teaching students academic language skills, including the use of inferential and narrative language along with vocabulary knowledge, has been shown to have the greatest evidence of effectiveness for supporting reading for understanding over time.

A. True

B. False


Recommendation 1

4. Academic language skills include which of the following abilities?

A. Articulating ideas beyond the immediate context

B. Clearly relating a series of events, both fictional and nonfictional

C. Comprehending and using a wide range of academic vocabulary and grammatical structures, such as pronoun references

D. All of the above


5. While students typically develop social language skills naturally, academic language skills usually require instruction, and students of all ages and text-reading abilities need to engage in activities that purposefully develop academic language skills.

A. True

B. False


How to Carry Out the Recommendation

6. Conversations before, during, and after read-alouds or other activities can help develop inferential language, such as predicting, problem-solving, hypothesizing, or contrasting.

A. True

B. False


Explicitly Engage Students in Developing Narrative Language Skills

7. Grammatical structures that should be taught to beginning readers include noun phrases, verb phrases, and pronoun inferences, while subordinate clauses, adverbial clauses, and prepositional phrases are elements that should be taught to support linguistic structure.

A. True

B. False


Teach Academic Vocabulary in the Context of Other Reading Activities

8. Activities that support deeper understanding allow students to make connections between a new vocabulary word and other known words, relate the word to their own experiences, generate and answer questions that include the word, and:

A. Differentiate between correct and incorrect uses of the word

B. Translate words from academic to social vocabulary and back

C. Use the words in routine sentence framing

D. Reinforce students' abilities to dynamically use words


Potential obstacles to Implementing Recommendation 1

9. Since students with weaker oral language skills may be reluctant to participate in whole-class discussions, differentiated instruction to support the oral language development of each student may be needed.

A. True

B. False


Recommendation 2

10. According to the expert panel, which of the following is NOT one of the skills students need to effectively decode and encode words?

A. The ability to identify the individual sounds, or phonemes, that make up the words they hear in speech

B. The ability to name the letters of the alphabet as they appear in print

C. The ability to identify each letter's corresponding sound

D. The ability to respond cognitively to sounds and visual representations


Teach Students to Recognize and Manipulate Segments of Sound in Speech

11. When teaching students how to recognize that words are made up of individual sound units, it is helpful to demonstrate that sentences can be broken into words, that some words can be broken into smaller words, and how words can be broken into syllables.

A. True

B. False


12. Once students can break words into syllables, they can be taught to recognize the initial consonant, consonant blend, or digraph in a syllable, which is called a rime.

A. True

B. False


Use Word-Building and Other Activities

13. Providing students with a set of letter tiles or magnetic letters, and having them add or remove letters to create words or to change one word into a different word can help to link students' knowledge of letter-sound relationships with phonemic awareness.

A. True

B. False


Recommendation 3-How to Carry Out the Recommendation

14. A type of blending in which students read the sounds from left to right but add each sound to the previous sound before going on to the next sound in the word is:

A. Sounding out

B. Chunking

C. Synthesizing

D. Bracketing


Teach Students to Recognize Common Word Parts

15. Once students have learned a few common spelling patterns, they can learn to analyze words by isolating and identifying meaningful word parts within them that share a similar meaning or use.

A. True

B. False


16. In order to decode complex words, a word analysis strategy can be taught, including each of the following techniques EXCEPT:

A. Identify the word parts and vowels

B. Say the different parts of the word

C. Cite the word parts slowly throughout the exercise to ensure recognition

D. Repeat the full sentence in which the word appears


Teach Regular and Irregular High-Frequency Words

17. When teaching students high-frequency words with irregular and regular spellings, they should be taught in combination of sound units rather than as whole words.

A. True

B. False


Introduce Non-Decodable Words that are Essential to the Meaning of the Text as Whole Words

18. Although teaching non-decodable words expands students' reading opportunities beyond decodable texts, experts recommend limiting the number of these words introduced at a time, since learning them holistically places considerable demands on students' memory.

A. True

B. False


Recommendation 4

19. Reading connected text accurately, fluently, and with appropriate phrasing and comprehension requires students to:

A. Identify words quickly and integrate ideas in the text with their background knowledge

B. Self-monitor their understanding

C. Apply strategies to support comprehension and repair misunderstandings

D. All of the above


As Students Read Orally, Model Strategies, Scaffold, and Provide Feedback

20. In order to help students practice decoding and word identification, activities should be planned in which students receive support from a more proficient reader who can provide constructive feedback or support.

A. True

B. False


Provide Opportunities for Oral Reading Practice

21. Oral reading practice enables students to develop reading fluency, which includes reading at a natural pace and with:

A. Expression

B. Eloquence

C. Ease

D. Poise


22. One recommended strategy to practice reading fluency is alternated reading, a technique where a more experienced reader reads a section of text aloud and then the student reads the same section aloud.

A. True

B. False


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