1. Although most immigrant children spend a period of time as English language learners, most ELLs today are not immigrants.
2. Millions of children live in a household in which at least one person is at risk of being deported. This threat:
A. Often places strains and restrictions on the entire family
B. Can cause children to be distracted from learning due to fears that one or more of their family members will not be there when they return from school
C. May cause children to hesitate to become engaged in school, knowing they could be removed at any moment
D. All of the above
3. Whether they are immigrants or native-born U.S. citizens, students who arrive at school with a primary language other than English are usually defined by what they lack, which is English language skills.
4. Recent policy shifts away from supporting bilingual classrooms (where students can move more or less seamlessly from using their primary language to speaking more and more English) to a greater emphasis on:
A. Structured English immersion
B. Remediation programs
C. Using language assessments to determine program placement
D. None of the above
5. On average, English language learners score lower on academic achievement tests than almost any other subgroup, except students with specific learning disabilities and those who are homeless.
6. According to the authors, many immigrant students and ELLs are significantly disadvantaged educationally, but not necessarily for reasons having to do with language, but rather because of poverty, weak instruction, and:
A. Systematic barriers
B. Overall lack of equity
C. Interrupted instruction
D. Poor early education
7. While most ELL students were born in the United States, their parents are usually immigrants, and many have experienced great trauma and may have left their home countries to escape war, gang activity, deep poverty, natural disasters, and other crises.
8. In addition to their most obvious asset, which is the ability to speak another language, research suggests that ELLs have other unique skills, including each of the following EXCEPT:
A. They often have complex, multinational perspectives on history, culture, and politics
B. They belong to a culture that prizes competition
C. They display greater motivation to learn than many native-born peers
D. They have become strongly resilient and self-reliant
9. Multilingualism has been shown to be associated with a series of cognitive advantages, including a greater ability to invoke multiple perspectives in problem solving .
10. In addition to the goal of helping ELLs become reclassified as English proficient, proponents of deeper learning would suggest incorporating a broader view which includes:
A. Helping students to achieve at high levels over the course of their schooling
B. Embracing cultural identity and global knowledge to benefit all students
C. Focusing on asset-based goals that move beyond language proficiency
D. Encouraging ELLs to take an active role in defining their priorities and needs
11. Among special education's recommended practices are several that would likely prove just as beneficial to the wider student population, such as:
A. Modifications to pacing
B. Direct and systematic instruction paired with explicit practice
C. Strategies to support motivation and attention, and increased instructional time
D. All of these
12. In the mid-1990s the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) began to require that students with disabilities:
A. Be exempt from testing
B. Test in English Language Arts only
C. Be included in its regular assessments
D. Be included only in modified assessments
13. In order to address continuing concerns about poor outcomes for students with disabilities and to likely open the door for deeper learning, the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs recently announced a new approach to state monitoring known as:
A. Results Driven Accountability
B. Individuals with Disabilities Report Card
C. Response to Intervention Assessment
D. Consequential Relevance Monitoring
14. One challenge that will have to be overcome in order to ensure that students with disabilities have real opportunities to learn deeply is that some educators and policymakers might not accept the premise that deeper learning goals are feasible for all students.
15. A suggestion often given to both general and special educators is to differentiate instruction for each learner. However it is argued that a more realistic and effective approach would be to have a number of specific instructional approaches designed for students with disabilities but often effective for students of all kinds.
16. Practices that are specifically designed to help students with disabilities learn academic content in social studies and other secondary level subject areas include all but:
A. Creating a comprehension canopy
B. Defining essential words
D. Team-based learning
17. Many students with (and some without) disabilities struggle with one or more aspects of cognitive processing, including challenges with memory, attention, and the generation, selection, monitoring, and implementation of learning strategies.
18. For students who struggle to process and comprehend complex texts, it is often helpful to practice "pair-talk" while reading, which includes pausing to ask each other questions meant to check their own understanding and to remind each other to use specific comprehension strategies.
19. Explicit instruction refers to the overt teaching of the steps or processes necessary to accomplish a task or learn a given skill, and it often involves:
A. Organizing instruction into manageable pieces of learning and integrating these pieces into an overall learning goal
B. Teacher modeling and demonstrations that illustrate precisely what students are expected to do
C. Introducing progressively more challenging tasks over time, and gradually pulling away some support
D. Giving students frequent opportunities to practice new skills and receive feedback
20. Extensive research suggests that if students have persistent learning needs, and if they show little improvement despite teachers' efforts to intensify instruction, they can probably benefit from clinical or experimental teaching, which is known as Diagnostic-Based Instruction.
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