1. Problem behaviors in early childhood (birth to five) are associated with poor outcomes in adolescence and adulthood, including delinquency, engagement in criminal activity and violence, and:
A. Substance misuse
B. Flawed social relationships
D. Misguided decision making
2. Externalizing behaviors among young children are those that are directed outward, including aggression, disruptive behavior, and oppositional defiance, while internalizing behaviors are directed inward and may include withdrawal and anxiety.
3. Several intervention approaches were found to significantly improve or reduce the frequency of externalizing behaviors, and specifically, programs that provided teacher training were the approaches most commonly evaluated, and the most successful overall.
4. Positive significant impacts on internalizing behaviors were more frequent when programs exhibited each of the following characteristics EXCEPT:
A. The programs targeted children rather than parents or teachers
B. The interventions were based in preschools
C. They specifically targeted internalizing behaviors
D. They used behavioral health professionals to deliver the programs
5. In addition to treatment programs that worked with children who were already demonstrating internalizing or externalizing behaviors, interventions also included universal approaches that worked at the classroom or community level with all children or parents, and tiered programs that combined the strategies.
6. In order to assess the longer-term benefits of early intervention efforts to assist young children with behavior problems, the authors recommend:
A. Thorough treatment and observation documentation that accompanies the child
B. Longitudinal studies that follow participants
C. A universal data-tracking system to record progress
D. None of the above
7. Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) is a comprehensive in-school curriculum designed to enhance overall wellness and prevent or reduce aggressive and disruptive behavior, with an emphasis on social skills and self-esteem.
8. Compared with children in the control group, children who participated in classrooms assigned to Preschool PATHS performed better in direct assessments of identifying facial emotions, identifying someone’s feelings in hypothetical situations, and:
A. Showing empathy
B. Cooperating with peers
C. Exhibiting patience and ability to compromise
D. Responding competently in challenging situations
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