1. Student engagement and disengagement are poorly addressed in most efforts to improve schools and learning, and current practices often work against enhancing engagement and result in many students disconnecting from classroom instruction.
2. A fundamental consideration in designing cost-effective student and learning supports and a key to understanding engagement and disengagement is an appreciation of:
A. Individual needs
B. Intrinsic motivation
C. Emotional and social engagement
D. Extrinsic desires
3. Behavioral engagement draws on the idea of investment, and incorporates thoughtfulness and willingness to exert the effort necessary to comprehend complex ideas and master difficult skills.
4. Each of the following is a correct statement about intervention strategies to deal with disengaged students EXCEPT:
A. It is desirable to create a situation where it is feasible to talk openly with students about their perceptions of why they have become disengaged
B. Renegotiating involvement in school learning through new and mutual agreements that are developed over time through conferences with students and that include parents where appropriate
C. Reestablishing and maintaining an appropriate working relationship that ensures ongoing interactions, and that creates a sense of trust, open communication, and provides personalized support and direction
D. Reframe school learning by reducing threatening evaluative measures and structuring content and processes to clarify purpose in terms of academic needs and experiences
5. Reviews of literature on human motivation suggest that helping students improve awareness of personal motives and true capabilities, and having them learn to set valued and appropriate goals are the key facets of addressing poor engagement in the classroom and at school.
6. For many years, the emphasis on matching individual differences in capability was referred to as individualized instruction, but in recent years this designation has given way to the term ___________ instruction.
7. While extrinsic reinforcers are easy to use and can immediately affect behavior, it is important to remember that what makes an extrinsic reward valuable is that it is experienced by the recipient as a reward.
8. Although grades often are discussed as simply providing information about how well a student is doing, many, if not most students perceive each grade as a reward or a punishment, and they are often over relied upon as a way to reinforce positive learning.
9. Engaging and re-engaging students depends on how the classroom and school address concerns about:
A. Appraisal and assessment
B. Accolades and benefits
C. Valuing and expectations
D. Self-efficacy and possibility
10. In most cases, stopping students' misbehavior makes them amenable to teaching and enhances classroom learning.
11. The motivational force that seems to arise when individuals perceive threats to their self-determination and when they are motivated to react in ways that protect or restore their sense of personal control is known as psychological reciprocation.
12. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about research concerning school and classroom climate?
A. Research suggests a significant relationships between climate and matters such as student engagement, behavior, self-efficacy, achievement, and social and emotional development, principal leadership style, teacher burnout, and overall quality of school life
B. The broader body of organizational research indicates that the role accountability pressures play in shaping organizational climate is speculative, while cause and effect interpretations of external motivations has a profound impact on climate
C. Studies report strong associations between achievement levels and classrooms that are perceived as having greater cohesion and goal-direction and less disorganization and conflict
D. Research suggests that the impact of classroom climate may be greater on students from low-income homes and groups that often are discriminated against
13. Whatever the initial cause of someone's learning and behavior problems, the longer the individual has lived with such problems, the more likely he or she will have negative feelings and thoughts about instruction, teachers, and schools.
14. Matching motivation and minimizing negative reactions requires factoring in students' perceptions in determining the right mix of intrinsic and extrinsic reasons, and requires understanding the key role played by expectations related to:
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