1. Reasearch indicates that infants who are not breastfed experience more episodes of diarrhea, ear infections and _________________, and are at higher risk of sudden infant syndrome, diabetes, and obesity.
B. Sleep disturbances
D. Lower respiratory tract infections
2. The maternity care experience can influence both breastfeeding initiation and later infant feeding behavior and experiences with breastfeeding in the first hours and days of life are significantly associated with an infant's later feeding.
3. Which of the following is NOT one of the recommendations of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative for successful breastfeeding?
A. Have a written breastfeeding policy that is routinely communicated to all health care staff
B. Help mothers initiate breastfeeding with 3 hours of birth
C. Give newborn infants no food or drink other than breast milk unless medically indicated
D. Foster the establishment of breastfeeding support groups and refer mothers to them upon discharge from the hospital or clinic
4. The practice of 'rooming in' calls for mothers and infants to remain together for at least 20 hours a day while in the hospital.
5. Professional education includes any program that improves the knowledge, skills, attitudes, or behaviors of health care providers in relation to:
A. The importance of breastfeeding
B. The physiology and management of lactation
C. The need for breastfeeding counseling for mothers
D. All of the above
6. When attempting to raise general awareness and increase acceptance of breastfeeding and lactation management, longer and more intensive courses are recommended rather than short lectures.
7. Mothers often identify _______________________________ as the most important intervention the health care system could have offered to help them breastfeed.
A. Providing a variety of educational materials
B. Connecting them to other breastfeeding mothers
C. Support received from health care providers
D. Being given the opportunity to participate in a breastfeeding training course
8. The Affordable Care Act requires health plans to cover prenatal and postpartum breastfeeding counseling and supplies, as the lack of this type of coverage may be a barrier to seeking professional support.
9. Experts recommend that WIC participants, (approximately one-third of all new mothers) have breastfeeding support in place by the time they have their first newborn check up.
10. The goal of peer support is to encourage and support pregnant and breastfeeding women, usually through peer support groups or individual support from a peer counselor.
11. Key considerations for individual peer support include each of the following EXCEPT:
A. Timing is important as the first days and weeks of breastfeeding are critical for establishing breastfeeding
B. Peer mothers should have the same or a similar sociocultural background as others needing support
C. Peer support programs may use both paid and volunteer counselors, although paying counselors helps to retain them and sustain programs
D. Experts recommend that peer counseling only be done in person, as other forms of contact such as phone or email do not provide the same benefits
12. Fathers and grandmothers an have tremendous influence on breastfeeding and can influence a woman's decisions and practices related to the infant.
13. For women in the US labor force, rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration are higher among women who have longer maternity leave, have breastfeeding support programs in the workplace, or:
A. Are allowed to bring their babies to work
B. Work part time rather than full time
C. Have nearby childcare
D. Are given flexible schedules during the workday
14. In a cross-sectional survey conducted among a sample of women working for a large public sector employer, individual program components associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months were in person support and lactation consultation.
15. Several studies have indicated that support for lactation at work benefits not only families but employers as well by improving productivity, enhancing the employer's public image, and decreasing absenteeism, health care costs, and:
A. Job dissatisfaction
C. Employee turnover
D. Postpartum depression
16. According to the authors, primary factors to consider when setting up a workplace lactation program include training on breastfeeding practices, cultural considerations among the women, cost, and breastfeeding preferences.
17. Since a majority of mothers with infants are employed, early child care and education (ECE) programs can be an important source of support for working mothers who want to breastfeed.
18. One way to promote breastfeeding is to include materials that encourage breastfeeding initiation, duration, and ______________ in preservice and professional development education and trainings.
19. The primary goals of breastfeeding education are to increase mothers' comfort level and help them view breastfeeding as necessary.
20. One review by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) found formal breastfeeding education alone was effective in increasing rates of breastfeeding initiation or duration.
21. Women have different breastfeeding educational needs depending on:
A. Their socioeconomic status and age
B. Their stage of pregnancy and past experiences
C. The level of family and health care support
D. None of the above
22. Intrapartum breastfeeding education includes:
A. The benefits of breastfeeding to mother, baby, and society
B. Specific needs in the early days of breastfeeding
C. Signs of success or potential problems in the first few days after hospital discharge
D. Common fears, concerns, problems and myths
23. Social marketing has been established as an effective behavioral change model for several public health issues and can be used as a means to encourage certain behaviors in mothers and to educate professionals about the importance of breastfeeding.
24. The social marketing strategy for change known as _______________ refers to maximizing benefits and minimizing costs of a new behavior, and may be effectively used in breastfeeding campaigns.
C. Trade off
25. Evidence suggests that the effect of the marketing practices used to promote breastfeeding substitutes is of particular concern because of its disproportionately negative effect on US mothers who are at high risk for early termination of breastfeeding.
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