1. Given that substance abuse is a multi-determined major health and social problem, schools must approach the problem in ways that ensure staff:
A. Have and provide accurate information
B. Take the problem seriously, but are careful not to undermine their credibility in presenting the message
C. Implement solutions that go well beyond surveillance and punishment
D. All of the above
2. For students who continue to find that immediate satisfaction from substance use outweighs concerns about risks, opportunities and activities that are incompatible with substance use and that can complete with such gratification are needed.
3. Empirical evidence suggests that the majority of substance abuse likely reflects some degree of interaction between internal and environmental factors that are grouped along an interrelated continuum.
4. In general, substance abuse problems caused by a significant mismatch between individual vulnerabilities and the nature of the person's environment tend to be moderate to profoundly severe and broadly pervasive.
5. The 2015 Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey of drug use and attitudes among American 8th, 10th, and 12th graders indicated each of the following EXCEPT:
A. For many substances, past-year use declined to the lowest levels since the survey began
B. Marijuana use remained steady among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders over the past 5 years despite softening of perceived risks, and there was a significant decline in past-year use of synthetic cannabinoids
C. Five-year trends continued to show steady rates (but no significant increases) of alcohol use among all grades
D. Cigarette smoking continued to drop and was at the lowest rate in the survey's history
6. According to the Partnership for Drug Free America, the top eight reasons why teens try alcohol and drugs are because of other people, popular media, escape and self-medication, boredom, rebellion, instant gratification, and:
A. Lack of confidence and misinformation
B. To improve performance or enhance competition
C. Genetic or environmental vulnerability
D. None of the above
7. Prescription and over-the-counter medications may have a particular appeal to teens because they are easily assessable and are often perceived as safe compared to street drugs.
8. Preventing substance abuse among youth requires an integrated, information-oriented and skills-based approach that includes strategies to:
A. Develop cognitive and behavioral skills
B. Change school and community norms and practices
C. Enhance social supports
D. All of the above
9. Although some schools have initiated random drug testing and/or reasonable suspicion/cause testing, the only students who can be legally tested are competitive athletes.
10. In general, research pertaining to the utility of random drug testing in schools shows mixed results, and proposes that prevention problems should place a greater emphasis on:
A. Improved screening and assessment
B. Creating a positive school climate
C. Parental and community involvement
D. Strategic selective intervention programs
11. Although some changes in mood, peer group, and eating/sleeping habits may be part of normal adolescent development, they can also be an indication of a developing substance abuse problem.
12. One way that school officials can help young people with drug use concerns is to encourage them to see a doctor who can screen for multiple issues and refer to treatment if necessary.
13. Recent research suggests that the most effective substance abuse treatments for teens are those that involve peers in group counseling settings.
14. The primary focus of research-based prevention programs is to intervene early in a child's development in order to eliminate risk factors immediately once a behavior problem has developed.
15. When focusing on enhancing protective factors and reversing or reducing risk factors, prevention programs should consider each of the following EXCEPT:
A. The risk of becoming a drug abuser involves the relationship among the number and type of risk factors and protective factors
B. Early intervention with risk factors often has a greater impact than later intervention, as it focuses on changing a child's life path away from problems and toward positive behaviors.
C. The potential impact of specific risk and protective factors remains constant with age
D. While risk and protective factors can affect people of all groups, these factors can have a different effect depending on a person's age, gender, ethnicity, culture, and environment
16. According to the authors, family bonding is the bedrock of the relationship between parents and children, and it can be strengthened through skills training on parent-child communication, parental involvement, and:
A. Parental supportiveness of children
B. Appropriate boundary setting
C. Creating family loyalty and security
D. Parent-child acceptance of one another
17. Prevention programs for general populations at key transition points, such as transition to middle school, can produce beneficial effects even among high-risk families and children, and because they don't single out specific populations, they can reduce labeling and promote bonding to school and community.
18. Preventative programs that use strategies to focus on interrupting drug use are known as:
A. Constructed programs
B. Implicit programs
C. Indicated programs
D. Designated programs
19. A critical consideration in the prevention of mental and/or substance use disorders and related problems in children, adolescents, and young adults is that behaviors and symptoms that signal the development of a behavioral disorder often manifest one to two years before a disorder is present.
20. Environmental change strategies have specific advantages over strategies that focus exclusively on the individual, including:
A. They target a much broader audience and have the potential to produce widespread changes in behavior at the population level
B. When implemented effectively, they can create shifts in both individual attitudes and community norms
C. Attitude and norm shifts can have long-term, substantial effects
D. All of the above
21. To produce positive change, prevention practitioners must understand the cultural and linguistic context of the community and the populations, and must have the willingness and skills to work within this context.
22. One promising strategy in substance abuse prevention has been the creation of the DFC program, which has provided funding to communities so that they may implement approaches to meet their needs that are organized, data-driven, multi-sector, and comprehensive.
23. The authors propose that many factors influence whether an adolescent tries drugs, including personality traits such as poor impulse control and:
A. Lack of conscientiousness
B. High need for excitement
C. Negative affect
D. Lack of trust in others
24. The brain is wired to encourage life-sustaining and healthy activities through the release of serotonin, and the "high" produced by drugs represents a flooding of the brain's reward circuits with much more serotonin than natural rewards generate, which in turn creates an especially strong drive to repeat the experience.
25. Exposure to stress in childhood primes the brain to be sensitive to stress and seek relief from it throughout life, which greatly increases the likelihood of subsequent drug abuse and of starting drug use early.
26. Compared to adults who use drugs, adolescents are:
A. More likely to report withdrawal symptoms when not using a drug
B. Unable to stop using a drug in spite of physical or mental health problems in greater numbers
C. More likely than adults to report hiding their substance use
D. All of the above
27. In order the address the unique needs of adolescents, treatment must take into account the whole person-including his or her developmental stage and cognitive abilities, and the influence of family, friends, and others in the person's life, as well as any additional mental or physical health conditions.
28. Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement about the general principles of adolescent substance abuse?
A. Adolescent substance use needs to be identified and addressed as soon as possible, as most adults who develop a substance use disorder report having started drug use in adolescence or young adulthood
B. Adolescents who are merely in the "experimentation" phase of drug use are not likely to benefit from a prevention or treatment intervention
C. Legal interventions and sanctions or family pressure may play an important role in getting adolescents to enter, stay in, and complete treatment
D. Effectively treating substance use disorders in adolescents requires also identifying and treating any other mental health conditions they may have, and sensitive issues such as violence and child abuse or risk of suicide should be identified and addressed
29. The minimal length of drug treatment depends on the type and extent of the adolescent's problems, but studies show outcomes are better when a person stays in treatment for:
A. 30 days or more
B. 60 days or more
C. 3 months or more
D. 6 months or more
30. Racial and ethnic minorities have unique behavioral health needs, and communities of color tend to experience a greater burden of mental and substance use disorders, which is likely due to poorer care as well as higher social, environmental, and economic risk factors.
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