1. Students with a learning disability in reading are likely to have a deficit in the areas of phonics and fluency, so classroom teachers need easy access to proven strategies to enhance these areas.
2. Research suggests that effective strategies for reading should be included in elementary classrooms, and that the skills of phonics and fluency are particularly important to emphasize in first through fourth grade.
3. In order to assess teachers’ understanding and use of reading strategies for teaching phonics and fluency, open-ended research questions included each of the following EXCEPT:
A. How do elementary teachers perceive the usability and accessibility of research-based information on strategies for teaching phonics and fluency?
B. How do teachers currently use strategies for teaching phonics and fluency?
C. What are the most effective research-based strategies for teaching phonics and fluency for students with learning disabilities?
D. How do teachers incorporate research-based strategies to improve vocabulary and reading comprehension into teaching phonics and fluency?
4. Drill and practice is a phonics strategy in which skills are repeatedly practiced (generally with flashcards), and echo reading is a fluency strategy in which the teacher reads a line of text and the student reads it back, echoing the teacher.
5. According to The National Reading Panel, each of the following is a major area of reading instruction that needs to be addressed in the classroom EXCEPT:
C. Critical thinking
6. Research suggests that students with learning disabilities make up approximately 18 percent of the public school population and most of those students have a learning disability in both reading and math.
7. Which is NOT a characteristic of fluency?
A. Expression or prosody
B. The ability to recognize words easily and accurately
C. Concentration on decoding rather than meaning
D. A bridge between word identification and comprehension
8. Phonemic awareness is hearing and manipulating the sounds in words, and it generally begins before formal schooling.
9. In order to reach the goal of comprehension, students with learning disabilities need instruction in phonics and fluency that is differentiated and diverse.
10. The term research-based is often referred to as:
A. Inquiry based
B. Analysis based
C. Scientifically based
D. Exploration based
11. Each of the following is a reason why there is a discrepancy between the teachers’ knowledge of research-based strategies and their use of those strategies in the classroom EXCEPT:
A. In general, teachers are unaware of statistics and do not use them for data collection in their classrooms
B. Information presented in a statistical manner can be unclear
C. Not all research-based information can be used in all classrooms
D. Teachers have to sift through all relevant research material to find what will work for their specific situation
12. Studies indicate that specific strategies used to teach phonics include word sorts, letter/sound association, direct instruction, drill and practice techniques, and picture cues.
13. Although sustained silent reading is still frequently used as a strategy to improve fluency in students with learning disabilities, it does not appear to offer the teacher interaction, guidance, and feedback that some students need in order to improve in the area of fluency.
14. Characteristics of small group instruction include:
A. Two to four students working with a teacher on a certain learning objective
B. Students working on specific lessons at a pace that fits the group
C. An opportunity for teachers to give more attention to individual students, check for understanding, and reinforce lessons taught in the larger classroom setting
D. All of the above
15. In a word or syllable, the first sound or phoneme is the onset, while the ending group of phonemes that begin with a vowel is the:
D. Vowel digraph
16. While drill and practice can be effective with students who are having difficulties with word recognition, it generally requires a significant amount of extra time to implement in relation to learning outcome.
17. One technique that meets the extensive practice need of students with learning disabilities is teaching beyond the point of mastery, which is known as:
18. The National Reading Panel states that instruction in grapheme/phoneme (letter/sound) correspondence is essential for success in reading and spelling, and for students with deficits in this area, explicit, direct instruction is essential.
19. When modifying any instructional techniques for students with learning disabilities, individual student needs and achievement should guide the process
20. Students with learning disabilities need to have many opportunities to read and re-read passages, as they tend to practice the art of reading less often than their non-disabled peers.
21. During echo reading, students should be instructed not to track the word with their finger, as this distracts from listening to the correct reading of the passage.
22. Some students with disabilities do not understand what fluent reading really means, so modeling is used to demonstrate accurate word meaning and to provide appropriate phrasing and:
23. Even though research-based instructional practices are the most effective means to teach phonics and fluency in early elementary school classrooms, these strategies are generally under-utilized.
24. The phonics and fluency strategies that appear to be the most widely used by teachers are:
A. Small group, onset/rime, choral reading, and echo reading
B. Drill and practice, letter/sound association and choral reading
C. Letter/sound association, repeated reading, and echo reading
D. Small group, drill and practice, repeated reading, and modeling
25. In general, when teachers are searching for specific, research-proven best practices, they tend to rely on well-received websites and educational journals.
26. Each of the following is an accurate statement about fluency EXCEPT:
A. Fluency can be described as accurate and automatic word recognition along with appropriate expression, as well as the ability to gain meaning from text using a limited amount of time
B. Fluency is often tracked by having students read passages for one minute while the teacher scores the number of words and accuracy of words read
C. Fluency should be practiced and tracked at the student’s grade level
D. A correlation has been made between gains in reading fluency and gains in reading comprehension
27. Incremental rehearsal, a drill and practice technique utilizing flashcards to drill students with learning disabilities, has been shown to aid in retention of known words that were previously unknown.
28. Fluency checklists can be used in pairs or small groups, where students who are not reading can grade the student who is reading in appropriate voice, expression, and:
29. The Phonics Screening Tool is a valid screening instrument used to determine a student's strengths and weakness in phonics and decoding skills, as well as the student's approximate reading level.
30. In the area of phonics and fluency, the research-to-practice gap that tends to occur with teachers is likely due to:
A. The under-use of professional educational journals which contain the most recent research for strategies in these areas
B. The reality that most professional journals present empirical data using statistical analysis and interpretation and are written typically for professors and fellow researchers, rather than classroom teachers.
C. The lack of journal information that can be easily translated into practice in classrooms
D. All of the above
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