1. While technological advances hold great potential for improving educational outcomes, technology must be combined with high-quality learning resources and sound implementations in order to be effective.
2. An advantage of using digital resources is that each learner can have ALL of the following EXCEPT:
A. A different pace
B. A contrasting style of presentation
C. No knowledge of technology
D. A different type of content
3. In the world of digital resources, experts recommend an approach to evidence that is varied and linear.
4. If educators embrace new strategies for improving learning outcomes, what should follow?
A. Higher test scores
B. An increase in high school graduation rates
C. Greater college graduation rates
D. A decrease in high school dropout rates
5. 'Big data” is a term that describes large amounts of fine-tuned data that is easily stored, searched, shared, analyzed, and visualized using commonly available analytical tools and methods.
6. The most widely accepted model today for determining the impact of a learning resource or intervention consists of ALL of the following stages of research EXCEPT:
A. An efficacy study is to test whether an intervention can produce a desired effect
B. Small investigations testing the principles behind a resource
C. Somewhat larger studies testing its efficacy under ideal conditions
D. Large-scale multisite randomized controlled trials
7. If students perform strongly after using a new technology-based resource, it can also be attributed to their teachers’ skills.
8. Legal issues may arise when educators, administrators, and researchers ________ data.
D. All of the above
9. Each of the following is an example of the federal government’s focus on the results of learning resources EXCEPT:
A. Common Core State Standards Initiative
B. Government Performance and Results Act
C. Establishment of the Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy
D. No Child Left Behind Act
10. Once a learning resource has been selected, the document used to help implement it is the Evidence Reference Guide.
11. Because expectations for students continue to rise, students today need ______________ at levels that were expected of only the most highly educated students in past generations.
A. Technological knowledge
B. Communication competencies
C. Test taking skills
D. All of the above
12. One disadvantage of revising digital learning systems is that it is too expensive.
13. Technology developers and education researchers differ in that education researchers are less likely to be guided by concepts drawn from basic learning theory and research.
14. Which of the following is true about A/B testing?
A. It requires three randomly assigned groups of users
B. Researchers compare the experiences and outcomes of the three groups
C. Historically, A/B testing has not been used for market research.
D. It is being applied to digital learning research and development.
15. A/B testing is recommended to guide big changes, such as a major user interface redesign.
16. Researchers claim that random-assignment experiments might be considered the gold standard for establishing research/practice relationships.
17. The primary goal of the Pathways project led by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching is to improve outcomes for developmental mathematics students in:
A. Elementary school
B. Middle school
C. High School
D. Community colleges
18. The Pathways Project has emphasized investigation of the relationships between specific changes in practices and changes in student completion rates for the developmental math sequence.
19. Which of the following is a correct statement about adaptive instruction?
A. Adaptive instruction is a fairly new strategy
B. Digital learning systems are considered adaptive when they change to better suit the learner in response to the learner’s gender or age
C. Adaptive learning systems never vary features, such as the way a concept is represented
D. Adaptive instruction involves personalized learning
20. Newer digital learning systems can base adaptations on whether a student responds correctly or incorrectly.
21. The University of Massachusetts’ Wayang Outpost tutor system analyzes a student’s emotional state as well as distinguishing between frustration and intelligence.
22. Classroom discussions are incorporated into the Contingent Pedagogies approach to give students the opportunity to engage in the scientific practices of argumentation and:
A. Developing explanations
B. Demonstrating misconceptions
C. Tracking examples
D. Mirroring responses
23. In order to make improvements, Baker and colleagues analyzed data from adaptive learning systems for middle school math to distinguish between students who were attempting to game the system and students who were:
A. Frustrated and not trying
B. Bored and not trying
C. Trying but still struggling
D. Succeeding with little effort
24. Game designers strive to foster the kind of confusion that has been associated with ultimate mastery of a concept and deeper learning, rather than the confusion that leads to frustration and quitting.
25. Each of the following is a reason cited for students dropping out of high school EXCEPT:
A. Academic disengagement
B. Social disengagement
D. Disengagement that generally occurs over a long-term, cumulative period
26. Siblings and peers can play critical roles in sparking and sustaining student engagement in learning activities.
27. Partners in The Youth Data Archive (YDA), which develops agreements with nonprofit and government agencies in selected areas and facilitates groups’ investigation of youth data to improve services and youth outcomes, includes ALL of the following EXCEPT:
A. Local police and sheriff’s departments
B. Local health departments
C. Human service agencies
D. Recreation and parks departments
28. The YDA has defined chronic absenteeism as:
A. Being missing from school 12 percent of the year without an excuse
B. Being missing from school 12 percent of the year with or without an excuse
C. Being missing from school 10 percent of the year without an excuse
D. Being missing from school 10 percent of the year with or without an excuse
29. Colleges and universities are leading the way in combining real-time course-level data with information from student data systems to create more dynamic early warning systems that help predict school failure.
30. Which is NOT a correct statement about The Purdue University Course Signals system?
A. It identifies students at varying levels of risk
B. It uses reactive analytics
C. It institutes interventions in the form of feedback
D. It institutes interventions in the form of prompts and supports from the course instructor
31. While digital badges may provide a snapshot of a student’s competencies and capabilities, they provide much less information than standardized test scores or grade point averages.
32. Supporting students’ learning calls for varied types of assessments, including each of the following EXCEPT:
A. Formative assessments administered in the course of learning to provide information that teachers and students can use to guide future learning
B. Assessments of 21st-century skills such as collaboration, problem solving, and innovation
C. Dynamic assessment to measure level of achievement in challenging and unfamiliar topics
D. Assessment of personal and affective qualities related to intellectual curiosity, self-regulation-and persistence
33. One limitation with formative assessments is that they only give information about whether or not students arrive at a correct answer.
34. A disadvantage of online learning systems is that they are unable to detect the amount of scaffolding and support a student needs.
35. A concern with performance assessments has been the high cost of complex performances that entail orchestrating multiple understandings and skills.
36. Shermis and Hamner compared automatic essay scoring engines and human scorers using rubrics and found that each of the scoring engines produced essay scores that were ___________ those produced by human scorers.
A. Higher than
B. Lower than
C. Similar to
D. Different from
37. Educational accountability systems have directed the attention of schools and districts on students’ performance on quarterly benchmark state achievement tests.
38. Research indicates that gaining information on how a student interacts with the learning software, in particular, how a student responds after answering a problem incorrectly, can improve predictions of future student performance.
39. Education systems do not explicitly measure important personal qualities such as conscientiousness and self-efficacy.
40. In Newton’s Playground, a computer game designed as an assessment and learning environment for Newtonian physics, the learner:
A. Uses Newtonian principles to get a ball to move
B. Draws a set of objects which “come to life”
C. Works on problems and can retry them as often as they like
D. All of the above
41. One reason that excellent and effective digital resources may be underused is because:
A. They may not fit within the constraints of a particular classroom
B. There are not enough digital resources available
C. Educators aren’t skilled in technology
D. None of the above
42. An advantage of digital learning resources is that anyone can create, configure, aggregate, and _______ learning materials.
43. The Learning Registry is a closed-source software project which provides the technical infrastructure and community practices for sharing information about learning resources across systems.
44. When evaluating digital resources, educators should consider ALL of the following EXCEPT:
A. Design variables, including alignment with standards
B. The designer's experience and background
C. Product fit, including whether students find it engaging
D. Cost and time needed
45. EdSurge, a digital review site, serves both users and developers.
46. Which is NOT a correct statement about user panels?
A. They provide a prompt feedback loop to connect developers and targeted users
B. They test a product’s usability
C. They gather information about user needs and behavioral patterns for specific products
D. They are one of the long-standing and traditional practices in market research
47. Even though it is not targeted for digital learning per se, What Works Clearinghouse of the Institute of Education Sciences is an example of an expert resource devoted to providing evidence of the effectiveness of learning resources.
48. The most successful digital learning test beds will draw on the research expertise of :
A. The education and science fields
B. The technology and math fields
C. The education and technology fields
D. The math and science fields
49. One problem with adapting learning resources is:
A. It may have unintended side effects
B. It is too expensive
C. It is too time consuming
D. Teachers are not qualified to make those adaptations
50. Digital learning innovations should be developed and implemented slowly so every school has the chance to adopt them.
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