1. In 2015, one quarter of all children in the United States had a parent who was foreign born, and as this number continues to grow, potential language and cultural barriers may make additional language resources necessary for children, both at school and at home.
2. Each of the following is an accurate statement about adolescent births EXCEPT:
A. Compared with babies born to older mothers, babies born to adolescent mothers are at higher risk of low birthweight and infant mortality
B. These babies are more likely to grow up in homes that offer lower levels of emotional support and cognitive stimulation, and they are less likely to earn high school diplomas
C. From 1995 to 2014, the total adolescent birth rate declined by 15 percentage points, although birthrates increased for some racial and ethnic groups
D. Giving birth during adolescence is associated with limited educational attainment, which in turn can reduce employment prospects and earnings potential
3. In contrast to the official approach to measure poverty in the U.S., the Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) creates a more complex statistical picture by incorporating additional items such as tax payments, work expenses, medical out-of-pocket expenditures, and the value of non-cash nutritional, energy, and housing assistance.
4. In recent years, the food security of households has been assessed based on self-reports as well as information from educators, medical professionals, and community service providers.
5. Tooth decay is one of the most common chronic conditions among children and if untreated, decay may cause pain, infection, and problems with eating, speaking, and:
D. None of the above
6. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about secondhand smoke?
A. While low levels of secondhand smoke exposure do not appear to be harmful, long-term exposure may have lasting negative effects
B. Children who are exposed to secondhand smoke have an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, lower respiratory tract infections, bronchitis, pneumonia, middle ear disease, and sudden infant death syndrome
C. Secondhand smoke can play a role in the development and exacerbation of asthma
D. Cotinine, a breakdown product of nicotine, is used as a marker for exposure to secondhand smoke in nonsmokers
7. For all youth ages 12–17, the rate of serious violent victimization declined sharply from the early 1990s through the early 2000s, but it has increased slightly since then.
8. The leading cause of death for children and adolescents in the U.S. is:
A. Chronic disease or illness
B. Unintentional injuries
C. Congenital abnormalities
D. Intentional self-harm
9. Between 2014 and 2015, illicit drug use in the past 30 days:
A. Declined slightly for 12th grade students
B. Increased for 10th grade students
C. Remained stable among 8th graders
D. Escalated for White and Black non-Hispanic 12th graders
10. While the high school completion rate for Hispanic young adults has consistently been lower during this period than for their White, non-Hispanic and Black, non-Hispanic peers, the rate for Hispanic young adults increased 30 percentage points between 1980 and 2014, from 57 percent to 87 percent.
11. In 2014, ___ percent of high school completers enrolled in a 2-year or 4-year college immediately after completing high school, up from ___ percent in 1980.
A. 68; 49
B. 66; 51
C. 64; 53
D. 62; 55
12. Analysis done by the Congressional Research Service finds that a significant share of minority youth, particularly Hispanic males, are detached from school or work activities, and these rates have been consistently higher over time.
13. Between 2007–2010 and 2011–2014, the percentage of children ages 6–17 with obesity was measurably different for each racial and ethnic group, which is likely due to individual factors such as family income and food choices.
14. Asthma attacks in children with asthma may be triggered by air pollution, secondhand tobacco smoke, exercise, allergens, and:
B. Misused asthma medication
C. Acid reflux
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