1. A variety of findings have recently emerged regarding previous PD efforts and their relationship to outcomes for caregivers and children, with great emphasis being placed on examining the effectiveness of PD strategies in working with infants/toddlers.
2. In order to highlight the most promising methods and approaches for enhancing caregiver interactions, the literature review included studies from which of the following age groups:
A. Infants and toddlers
B. Infants, toddlers, and preschool
C. Infants, toddlers, preschool, and kindergarten
D. Infants, toddlers, preschool, and K-3 students
3. For this study, the authors collected information on ALL of the following EXCEPT:
A. Study measurement and findings
B. PD strategies and details
C. Context of PD intervention
D. Sample characteristics
4. Process consultation emphasizes the importance of a trusting, respectful relationship, goal setting, and use of which type of feedback:
5. Although child-adult ratios in infant/toddler settings meet best practice recommendations in most states, infant/toddler settings often face other inconsistent barriers that may inhibit the feasibility or effectiveness of PD interventions.
6. Research on PD in early childhood found that the literature is largely focused on caregivers working:
A. In private home-based settings
B. In public schools with kindergartners
C. With preschool-age children
D. In custodial care settings
7. Although there is positive evidence for isolated PD approaches like workshops, growing consensus suggests that such efforts may not be as effective at sustaining caregiver or child outcomes as ongoing PD efforts.
8. In infant/toddler settings, whether center-based or home-based, the most commonly cited PD approaches were coaching, mentoring/supervision, workshops, and:
A. Reflective supervision
B. Proactive supervision
C. Reciprocal teaching
D. Online learning
9. Each of the following examples of PD have been found to have a positive effect on the quality of care for infants and toddlers EXCEPT:
A. Dialogic conversations between caregivers with both their peers and researchers
B. Facilitated action-research
C. Coaching paired with workshops
D. Coaching paired with coursework
10. Mentoring visits that include coaching and modeling around mutually agreed-upon quality improvement goals have proven to be effective PD strategies in cases where providers received monthly or bi-monthly visits averaging 3 to 4 hours.
11. In the infant/toddler studies reviewed for this article, the most common specific PD strategies used were quality observations, frequent feedback, and:
A. Online training
B. Reciprocal teaching
C. Opportunity for practice
D. Individualized support
12. The reviewed infant/toddler studies revealed that few used technology as a mode for PD delivery, but when it was utilized, the most common form was video, for both learning and communication.
13. Which is NOT an example of technology in the infant/toddler and home-based studies cited in this report?
A. Flash notes
B. Multimedia tools and DVDs
C. Online coursework
D. Social media
14. Which is a true statement about PD and positive caregiver-child interactions?
A. There are typically positive links between PD and children’s academic and developmental outcomes
B. Caregivers should be given support for developing skills to implement more complex curricula and approaches
C. PD can successfully influence caregiver practice even within a short time-frame, particularly when focused on general or broad practices
D. All of the above
15. In a quasi-experimental design to examine whether and how much the quality of a peer-mentoring program for teachers was related to observed engagement, positive child outcomes for the group that had higher intensity mentoring were found.
16. Commonly identified challenges and barriers include caregiver and PD provider time, lack of program funding or incentives, caregiver attitudes and beliefs, technology-related issues, and:
A. Poor practical application to the work setting
B. Lack of support during implementation
C. Slow improvements or poor results
D. Caregiver knowledge
17. Which IS a correct statement about the Neuman and Wright study involving caregivers with limited education or literacy?
A. Coursework was a more effective PD form than coaching
B. Teachers saw the relevance of the readings to their practice
C. Some found the textbook difficult to read and had trouble keeping up with the assignments
D. They believed that much of the material focused more on the what and how rather than the why of certain literacy practices
18. Each statement about the Participatory Adult Learning Strategy (PALS) model is correct EXCEPT:
A. It involves the introduction/illustration of new content
B. The new content includes processes and practices
C. After the content is introduced and illustrated, it is applied, practiced, and evaluated
D. The facilitator repeats the process and identifies the next steps for the learner
19. In general, home-based caregivers are equally likely to participate in PD as center-based and preschool caregivers, which is probably due to the current availability of online professional development.
20. Distance and online learning are useful PD strategies for ALL of the following reasons EXCEPT:
A. Performance feedback can be delivered successfully through online tools
B. They develop and connect a community of learners
C. Online approaches are much less expensive than a traditional college setting
D. Caregivers perceive online approaches favorably, but appreciate having face-to-face interaction as well
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