1. While substance use generally begins during adolescent years, there are known biological, psychological, social, and environmental factors that contribute to its risk that begin accumulating as early as the prenatal period.
2. Research pertaining to early risk factors for substance abuse supports each of the following premises EXCEPT:
A. Interventions that reduce risk factors, promote protective factors, and increase access to resources are valuable in the lives of young children and those closest to them
B. Substantial data from many short-term studies indicates that intervening with children and families who are showing early risk factors for substance abuse is effective, but there is little evidence that these benefits continue into adolescence and young adulthood
C. Research has found that a large number of early risk factors for substance abuse are simultaneously risk factors for other mental, emotional, and behavior problems
D. Interventions designed to prevent substance abuse have shown many positive benefits that extend to other outcomes, including improved personal, social, and familial functioning
3. One of the primary principles of substance abuse prevention for early childhood is that all interventions, regardless of children’s age or behavior being targeted, must focus on the home circumstances rather than proximal environments.
4. How successfully or unsuccessfully a child meets the demands and challenges arising from given developmental transitions, and whether the child meets milestones on an appropriate schedule, can affect his or her future course of development, including risk for drug abuse or other mental, emotional, or behavioral problems during adolescence.
5. Life events or transitions represent points during which the individual is in a period of change, and they are sometimes called sensitive, critical, or:
A. Consequential periods
B. Authentic periods
C. Marked periods
D. Vulnerable periods
6. According to Kellam and Rebok, spheres of influence during life course development and transitions through adulthood will include genes, biology, maternal health, family, peers, intimate pair/family, work, and:
A. Society and culture
B. Physical health and nutrition
C. Community and classroom
D. Emotional bonds and attachment
7. The environment exerts its greatest proportional impact in infancy and gradually lessens, relative to genetic influences, across later adolescence and early adulthood.
8. As a child grows from infancy, his or her unfolding personality and needs influence the family environment, school environment, and wider social contexts, which in turn exert an influence on the child and others in the same surroundings.
9. Which of the following is NOT one of the infancy and toddler risk factors that the authors suggest may contribute to later drug use?
A. Poor self-regulation can lead to frustration and constant negative attention as the child progresses through these years
B. Having a difficult temperament in infancy may set the stage for the child having trouble with self-regulation later, as well as create challenges for the parent-child relationship
C. Insecure attachment during the child’s first year of life can cause a child to be aggressive or withdrawn, fail to master school readiness skills, and have difficulty interacting with adults or other children
D. Uncontrolled aggression when a child is a toddler can lead to problems when he or she enters preschool, such as being rejected by peers, being punished by teachers, and failing academically
10. Chronic stressors like family poverty and stress that is intense or prolonged, such as a parent’s mental health problems or a lingering illness, can diminish a child’s ability to cope, interfere with proper brain development, and impact aspects of physical health like proper functioning of the immune system.
11. Each of the following is a correct statement about exposure to secondhand smoke EXCEPT:
A. Secondhand smoke exposure in childhood is associated with upper and lower respiratory tract illnesses, asthma, and tooth decay
B. Because children’s brains are still developing, exposure to its chemicals can alter developmental trajectories and have long-lasting effects
C. Secondhand smoke is the leading preventable cause of throat and sinus infections
D. Secondhand smoke exposure in children is linked to impaired executive brain function, which manifests most clearly as behavioral problems and an increased risk of ADHD
12. External factors important in building a context for healthy development across childhood include parenting that incorpoates warmth, consistency, age-appropriate expectations, consistent routines and rules, and:
A. Mutual satisfaction
B. Trust and respect
C. Healthy play and cooperation
D. Praise for accomplishments
13. The theoretical rationale for modifying internal and external risk and protective factors in early childhood, as a means to change outcomes and reduce drug exposure and use in adolescence, is known as the “induction model.”
14. Positively affecting a child’s behavior through early intervention can elicit positive behaviors in other people, which can improve the overall social environment.
15. A notable characteristic of programs targeting the transitions to school period of development is the use of interactive techniques such as:
B. Guided play sessions
C. Small-group practice
D. All of the above
16. Durham Connects is a brief, universal postnatal nurse home-visiting program designed to assess family needs and connect parents with community resources to improve infant health and well-being, and although every family is engaged, it rapidly triages and concentrates resources on families with assessed higher needs.
17. The Early Risers intervention for children at higher risk for the development of serious conduct problems, including the use and misuse of drugs, helps enhance normal development by encouraging positive peer affiliations and improving academic competence and:
A. Behavioral self-regulation
B. Problem-solving skills
C. Emotional autonomy
D. Affective responsiveness
18. Positive Action, a tiered, comprehensive social-emotional and character development program for preschool and early primary grade students, has proven to be effective in reducing aggressive and anti-social behavior and in boosting familial and communal relationships.
19. Scientific theories that specify the contexts within which individuals develop and function, and strive to explain the factors within contexts that influence changes in behavior are referred to as:
A. Developmental theories
B. Ecological theories
C. Cognitive theories
D. Behavior analytic theories
20. For interventions addressing childhood problems, level of risk is usually the most important defining characteristic.
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