**1. Mathematics classrooms can be restrictive spaces in which not every child is afforded an opportunity to be successful in mathematics, as traditional mathematics instruction typically privileges dominant notions of mathematics while implicitly dismissing the diverse knowledge, culture, and language of all students. **

**2. The four Rights of the Learner (RotL), developed by bilingual teacher Olga Torres, proposes that students are entitled to each of the following rights EXCEPT:
**

**3. Valenzuela (2010) suggested that schools have both implicitly and explicitly silenced and devalued the voices of too many students while focusing on the few who can readily navigate the existing system, in a process known as “diminished schooling.”
**

**4. Which of the following is an accurate statement about convergent and divergent formative assessments in mathematics?
**

**5. When students engage in problem-solving that lacks an obvious answer or strategy, they have more opportunities to develop connections between old and new knowledge, and if teachers design and present problems that are open-ended, students can engage in productive struggle as they actively consider the solution to the problem.
**

**6. According to the author, which of the following is NOT one of the likely results of giving students the right to write, do, and represent what makes sense to them?
**

**7. Mistakes in mathematics should not be avoided but instead valued as glimpses into students’ thinking at that moment, and children should be given a safe space to share their confusions and errors and to have their thinking valued by the teacher.
**

**8. Using the RotL in mathematics teaching encourages the use of formative assessment as a tool to elicit the ways children know, use, and learn mathematics, and to encourage teachers to push to the forefront the students’:
**

Copyright © 2019 TeachME Professional Development

Visit us at https://www.teachmeceus.com